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pathophysiology nervous system


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2 % of the body wt
uses 15 % of the total CO
consumes 20 % of the total available O2
blood supply
determined by the metabolic activity
gray matter > white matter
neurons in the ??? are more vulunerable to hypoxia
1) hippocampus
2) cerebellar cortice
3) cerebral cortice
total cerebral blood flow
750 ml/min
total CBF supplied by?
2 internal carotid arteries and 1 basilar artery
total intracranial blood volume
100-150 ml at any given time
intracranial circulating pool turns over?
5-7 times/min
average CBF
55 ml/100mg of brain tissue/min
CBF less than 30-35 ml/100mg/min
CBF less than 20 ml/100mg/min
CBF less than 15 ml/100mg/min
massive infarction
CBF regulation
auto-regulated by local met. factors with [CO2], [H], and [O2]
blood brain barrier
barrier between the intravascular space and the brain
nervous system
1) central nervous system
2) peripheral nervous system
brain & spinal cord
integrative & control centers
cranial & spinal nerves
communication lines bet. the CNS & the rest of the body
*All nerves (100 %) are part of PNS
sensory division
= afferent
somtaic & visceral sensory nerve fibers
conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS
motor division
= efferent
motor nerve fibers
conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors
(muscles & glands)
motor division devides to?
autonomic nervous system & somatic nervous system
ANS devides to?
sympathetic and para-sympatheic
involuntary (visceral motor)
conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
somatic nervous system
voluntary (somatic motor)
conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
sympathetic nervous system
mobilizes body systems during emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
conserves energy
promotes nonemergency functions
impulse transmission within neuron
only one way direction
axodendritic synapses
axosomatic synapses
axoaxonic synapses
cell types of CNS
1) astrocytes
2) oligodendrocytes
3) microglia
4) ependymal cells
cell types of PNS
1) satellite cells
2) Schwann cells
maintain BBB
structural support
regulate ion, nutrient, & dissolved gas [ ]
absorb & recycle neurotransmitters
form scar tissue after injury
myelinate CNS axons
structural framework
remove cell debris, wastes, & pathogens by phagocytosis
ependymal cells
line ventricles (brain) & central canal (spinal cavity)
assist in producing, circulating, & monitoring of CSF
have cilia
satellite cells
surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia
Schwann cells
surround all axons in PNS
resp. for myelination of peripheral axons
participate in repair process after injury
connective tissue membranes
1) dura matter (superficial)
2) arachnoid matter
3) pia matter (bound tightly to brain)
subdural space
serous fluid
subarachnoid space
lateral sulcus
Sylvian sulcus
gray matter (cortex)
contains bodies of neurons
white matter
contains axons of neurons
lymbic system
a collection of interconnected but not contiguous structures in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and brain stem
cingulate gyrus
septal area
parahippocampal gyrus
lateral ventricles (2)
third ventricle
fourth ventricle
choroid plexuses
produce CSF
blood-CSF barrier
substances do not pass bet. cells but through due to tight junctions of blood endothelial cells
similar to serum with most proteins removed
provides some nutrients to CNS tissues
produced by ependymal cells
CSF reabsorbed at?
arachonoid villus
change in environment
1) reception
2) analysis
3) comparison with other data already stored
will never go under mitosis

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