This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

19th Century American History - Part 2


undefined, object
copy deck
Define "abolish"
What four groups/people were mostly involved in the abolition movement?
1. American Colonization Society
2. William Lloyd Garrison
3. Harriet Beecher Stowe
4. Fredrick Douglass
Who founded the American Colonization Society?
Robert Finley
What were the values of the two groups in the American Colonization Society?
1. One was opposed to slavery
2. Other feared America was headed for a race war
What would be the "end" brought on by the American Colonization Society?
Slaves would be brought back to Africa
Where did the American Colonization Society get its money?
1. Charitible contributions
2. State governments
3. Federal government
Where did the slaves brought back to Africa by the ACS settle?
What is the capital of Liberia?
What were the 2 basic problems of the ACS's plan?
1. Many people didn't want to go back
2. It was hard to raise money
WHo created "The Liberator"?
William Lloyd Garrison
What did William Lloyd Garrison write?
The Liberator, an Abolitionist newspaper
What group did William Lloyd Garrison found?
American Antislavery Society
What did Harriet Beecher Stowe write?
Uncle Tom's Cabin
What did Frederick Douglass write?
Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass
What was the Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass?
First hand account of horrors of slavery
What are the seven steps of the industrial revolution?
1. Steam-powered machines
2. Factory system
3. Need for cotton increased
4. Demand for slaves increased
5. Urbanization took place
6. North begins to industrialize
7. Change in how cotton is cleaned
Who invented the first steam-powered machine?
James watt
What system did the Factory System replace?
"putting out" or domestic
What is a factory?
A building that contains both machines and workers
What became the Cash Crop of the south during the industrial revolution?
Cotton is a ____ _____ industry.
Labor intensive
What is Urbanization?
growth of cities
With whom did the industrial revolution begin in America?
Samuel Slater
What is Samuel Slater known for?
First textile Factory in America
How did Slater know about textile factories?
He escaped GB, arrived in Rhode Island to start a factory
Where was Andrew Jackson born?
South Carolina
What 8 things is Jackson known for?
1. Joined the Continental Army at age thriteen
2. Was captured as a POW
3. Scars on his face and hands, had smallpox
4. Became a lawyer
5. Married a divorcee (Rachel)
6. Killed a guy in a dual in defense of his wife
7. Led the Battle of New Orleans
8. Became a US senator
Who were the two primary candidates of the 1824 election?
1. Andrew Jackson
2. John Quincy Adams
What happened in the elecdtion of 1824 that was controversial?
Jackson won by popular vote and electoral votes, but didn't have the majority of the electoral votes
Who had to decide on the election of 1824?
House of Representatives
What was Henry Clay's deal with John Qunicy Adams?
He would support JQA, who would become president, then JQA would put Henry Clay as Secretary of State
WHy did Clay want to be secretary of state?
It was considered "heir to the presidency"
Why was Jackson ticked off at Clay?
1. He should have been chosen as president
2. It appeared as though Clay would be the next president
What did Jackson call Clay's agreement with John Quincy Adams?
"corrupt bargain"
What party did Jackson form?
Democratic Party
Who ran in the election of 1828?
Andrew Jackson (Democrat)
John Quincy Adams (Republican)
What were three major issues for Jackson to deal with?
1. Native Americans
2. War on the Bank
3. Nullification Crisis
What act moved ultimately moved Cherokee Nation?
Indian Removal Act
What are the two parts of the Indian Removal Act?
1. Gave the government millions of dollars to use to negotiate treaties
2. Authorized the government to use force if necessary to move the native Americans further west
What happened that moved people to Georgia?
Gold was discovered
What was the treaty between the US and Cherokee Nation?
1. US government would pay $5 million
2. Cherokee Nation would move to Oklahoma
What was the problem with the treaty between the US and Cherokee Nation?
It wasn't negotiated with leaders, only some followers. Most people didn't agree and refused to move
What was the name of the movement of Cherokee Nation>?
Trail of Tears
What was the trail of tears?
Jackson sent troups to force people to move from GA to OK
What were the three steps to the War on the Bank?
1. Congress granted the Charter
2. Jackson vetoed it
3. Pulled Federal money out of the National Bank and put it in state banks
Why did Jackson veto the NB's Charter?
Disliked the bank because he was a strict constructionist
Who began the Nullification Crisis?
John C. Calhoun
What was John C. Calhoun's role in government and from where was he?
Vice President under Jackson
South Carolina
What was the Tariff hated by Calhoun?
Tariff of 1828
What is the southern name for the Tariff of 1828?
"Tariff of Abominations"
What is a Tariff?
Tax on imported goods
Who would benefit from a Tariff?
The north
What did Calhoun do in response to the Tariff?
Resigned and became senator
What is the idea behind nullification?
1. States created the Federal Government
2. States should be superior to Federal Governments
3. States, if they choose, can nullify federal laws
What document did Calhoun draft?
Ordinance of Nullification
Who passed the Ordinance of Nullification?
government of South Carolina
What two laws did Jackson get congress to pass?
1. Force Bill
2. Compromise of 1833
What did the Force Bill do?
Power to use military force to collect taxes called for in South Carolina under the Tariff
What did the Compromise of 1833 do?
Lowered the Tariff of 1828
Eventually lowered it to the original amount
What was the name of the Jackson-hating party?
What did the Whigs hate about Jackson?
1. He killed the National Bank
2. Backed the Tariff of 1828
Why did Mexico want people to move to Texas?
Tax money
Who was the dictator leading Mexico?
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
What happened after Texas declared its independance?
Santa Anna attacked the Alamo
What is the name of the battle when Santa Anna attacked the Alamo and how long did it last?
Battle of the Alamo; 13 days
How many of the Texans died in the Battle of the Alamo? Who is one of the most famous?
All 189, Davy Crocket
In what battle did the Texans attack the Mexican army?
Battle of San Jacinto
Who led the Texan army in the Battle of San Jacinto?
Sam Houston
Who won the Battle of San Jacinto?
What was Texas after it was independant of Mexico?
Republic of Texas
Who was the president of the Republic of Texas?
Sam Houston
What was the problem of admitting TX to the US?
issue of slavery
What did America do when texas wanted to be admitted?
Ignored it for almost 10 years
What were the conditions of TX entering the US?
1. Texas would enter as a slave state
2. Part of TX would be turned over to the Federal Government
3. US government would take Texas's debt
What was the dispute of the Mexican war?
WHere is the boundary of Texas?
Where did the US say Texas's boundary was? Mexico?
US: Rio Grande
MX: Nueces River
Who was the US president during the Mexican war?
James K. Polk
What did Polk do to protect the border?
Sent troops
WHo was the leader of the troops protecting the border?
General Zachary Taylor
What was the name of the treaty between US and MX?
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
What was the significance of the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo?
Mexico gave territory to the US, virtually all the land of West Texas
What is the Sectional Crisis?
Crisis between the North and South US
What was the name of the plan that said NO slavery would be allowed in the Territory from MX?
Wilmot Proviso
Who created the Wilmot Proviso?
David Wilmot
Where was David Wilmot from?
What was the South's plan for Slavery in the territory from MX?
Slavery allowed in all of the territory
Why did the South think slavery should be allowed in all of the territory from MX?
"America" is the people, the territory is owned by the people... you cannot deny citizens of their right to own property
What two compromises were created in the Sectional Crisis?
1. Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the West
2. Squatter Sovereignty
What is Squatter sovereignty?
Popular Sovereignty
Who ran in the Election of 1848 and under what parties?
Lewis Cass - Democrat
Zachary Taylor - Whigs
Free Soil Party - Martin Van Buren
What idea did Lewis Cass come up with?
Squatter Sovereignty
What was Lewis Cass's role in government before running in 1848?
Sentator from Michigan
What didn't Taylor want to take a stand on?
Who promoted Marti Van Buren?
What was Martin Van Buren?
Former democratic president
Who won the election of 1848 and why?
Zachary Taylor; the Democrats split their vote
Who had a saw mill in California?
John Sutter
Who worked for John Sutter?
James Marshall
What did Marshall discover at Sutter's mill?
What was Sutter's reaction to the gold at his mill?
He wasn't very happy
Who created the Compromise of 1850?
Henry Clay
What did the Compromise of 1850 say?
1. California admitted as a free state
2. Rest of the territory gained from Mexico would be governed by popular sovereignty
3. Slave trade would be illegal in Washington DC
Who countered the Compromise of 1850?
John C. Calhoun
What did Calhoun say in response to the Compromise of 1850?
1. Slavery must be allowed in the territory from Mexico
2. The US needs two presidents, one for the north and one for the south
What was the Great Debate about?
Whether or not the Compromise of 1850 would be passed
Who was responsible for the passing of the Compromise of 1850?
Zachary Taylor
Stephen A. Douglas
What did Zachary Taylor say about the Compromise of 1850?
1. He would veto any law that dealt with slavery that wouldn't admit CA as a free state
2. If the south votes to secede, he would personally lead the US army to atack any state which did so
What was Stephen A Douglas' role and what did he do to help pass the compromise of 1850?
Senator from Illinois
Made deals
What bill did Stephen A Douglas write?
Kansas-Nebraska Act
What did the Kansas-Nebraska act sayh?
1. Turn part of the land into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas
2. Repeal the Missouri Compromise
3. Let popular soveriegnty decide
What was the new political party stading on one issue?
Republican party
What was the issue the Republican party take a stand on?
Against expansion of slavery into the territories
Why was Kansas called "bleeding kanasas"?
so much bloodshed
Why did pro-slavery candidates get elected for governmental posistions in Kansas?
Slave owners in missouri voted
Where did anti-slavery people meet to make their own constitution?
Where were anti-slavery people arrested as traitors?
Lawrence, Kansas
What is John Brown known for?
What did John Brown believe about himself?
that he was called by God to abolish slavery
What did John Brown say about the 5 anti-slavery people that were killed in the looted town?
They were murdered
What did Brown say should be done in retalliation to the five people killed?
Pro-slavery people should be killed
What did Brown do in retaliation?
Pottawatomie Massacre
What was Charles Sumner's governmental position?>
Sentator from Mass.
What seech did Sumner give?
"Crime Against Kansas"
What did Sumner's speech say?
1. Slavery is wrong
2. South is wrong for backing slavery
3. Andrew Butler is wrong for defending slavery
What was Andrew Butler's position in government?
Senator from South Carolina
Who was Andrew Butler's nephew?
Preston Brooks
What was Preston Brooks' position in the government and what is he known for?
House of Representatives - South Carolina
Beat Sumner into uncounciousness
What was Andrew Butler considered after he beat Sumner?
Hero of pro-slavery
What happened after Butler beat Sumner?
Resigned from the house, ran for senate and was elected
What three points did the "Free Soil" people sand on?
1. Slavery is morally wrong (in the eyes of God)
2. What it did to whites
3. Went against American Values (libery, freedom) - Dec. of independence
What did Pro-slavery people stand on?
1. Blacks are savages and we must be protected from them
2. Works of Professor Thomas R. Dew
What "proved" that blacks were savages?
1. Slave Rebellion in Santo Domingo - 60,000 people killed
2. Nat Turner's rebellion
What was Professor Thomas R. Dew's argument for slavery?
1. Blacks are inferior
2. Slaves in the south are better of that white workers in the north
3. The Bible
4. SOuthern Economy needs it- as does US economy
5. Part of the southern way of life- better than Northern way
What started a Depression?
Ending of the Crimean War
Where did the Europeans get food during the Crimean War?
What part of the US was helped by the Crimean war?
THe North
What were the US's two economies based on?
North: Food-based
South: Cotton and Tobacco
What was "proof" that the slave-based economy was better than non-slave based?
Depression after the Crimean War
Who was the Dred Scott case between?
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Who was Dred Scott?
Slave in Missouri
Where had Dred Scott's former master taken him?
Who was Dred Scott's new owner?
J.F.A. Sanford
What was Scott's claim in Dred Scott v. Sanford?
He should have been free because he was taken to Illinois, a free state
Who was the chief justice of Dred Scott v. Sanford?
Roger Taney
What were the three points of the Dred Scott case?
1. Dred Scott is not a US citizen, therefore cannot file suit
2. Blacks are not US citizens
3. Federal government can't deny people the right to own property without due process
WHat backed up the idea that the Federal government can't deny people the right to own property without due process?
5th Amendment
Where was the Lecampton constitution made?
Lecampton, KS
What would the Lecampton Constitution be?
State Constitution for Kansas
What side of the slavery issue was the Lecampton Constitution on?
What happened to the Lecampton Constitution?
It was voted down
What ins considered one of th emost important Senate elections?
Sentate Elections in Illinois
Who ran in the Senate elections of Illinois and under what parties?
1. Stephen A. Douglas - Democrat
2. Abraham Lincoln - Republican
How were Senators elected?
State Legislators
What made Lincoln nationally known?
Series of debates that he challenged Douglas to (seven)
What four points did Douglas continually bring up in his debates with Lincoln?
Which were untrue and which were just attacks?
1. Republicans are promoting hatred between the sections (attack)
2. Republicans want equality of the races (untrue, attack)
3. Republicans will try to outlaw slavery in the southern states (untrue, attack)
4. Democrats are in favor of popular sovereignty
What did Lincoln continually bring up? Which was untrue?
1. Democrats are going to expand slavery into the North (Untrue)
2. Slavery is wrong
Who won the debates?
What was Lincoln's stand on slavery?
1. Wrong in the eyes of God
2. Advocate of Free Labor
3. It's anti-democratic
Why was Lincoln an advocate of Free Labor?
Good for the economy
What is Free Labor
Labor by Free workers
Where did John Brown move to start a rebellion?
What town was occupied by John Brown?
Harpers Ferry
What part of Harper's Ferry did John Brown capture?
What was John Brown's plan in Harper's Ferry?
Capture town, get weapons, find local slaves to help
How many men were working with John Brown, and how many were taken hostage?
21, 60
WHat was the problem about John Brown's rebellion?
Slaves didn't come
Why didn't slaves come to help John Brown?
1. Didn't hear about it
2. Couldn't escape
What was called in to re-capture Harper's Ferry?
US Army
Who lead the US Army in the re-capturing of Harper's Ferry?
Robert E. Lee
What happened to the men who captured Harper's Ferry?
Captured and executed
What was the Significance of Harper's Ferry?
1. Convinced people in the South that they weren't safe in the Union
2. Democrats/Southerners said Republicans were behind it (not true)
Who were the two democratic candidates in the election of 1860?
1. Stephen A. Douglas
2. John Breckenridge
What did Stephen A Douglas stand on in the election of 1860 and who endorsed him?
Popular sovereignty, Nothern Democrats
What did John Breckenridge stand on, and hwo endorsed him?
Slavery being allowed in the territories; Southern Democrats
Who was the Republican Democrat in the election of 1860?
Abraham Lincoln
What did Lincoln stand on in the presidential election?
Slavery must not be allowed in the states
Why did Lincoln win the election?
Democrats split their vote
Why did the Southern states think they had the right to secede?
The states freely chose to enter the union, therefore they may freely choose to leave
What Analogy was used to describe secession?
Analogy of Marriage
Who was the first state to secede?
South Carolina
When did South carolina secede?
After the election but before Lincoln took office
Who was the president before lincoln/party?
James Buchanan/Deomocrat
WHat was Buchanan's response to the states seceding?
You can't do that! But I don't think the Federal Government can make you stay...
The Civil war is known as the ________ war the US has ever participate in.
Why would the N. Fight the civil war?
To preserve the Union
Where did the Civil War begin?
Fort Sumter
Where is Fort Sumter?
Small island in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina
Where did Federal governments ave posts?
Each State
What were seceding states taking over?
Federal Posts
Why did South Carolina send people to washington, DC?
To ask Buchanan to hand over the Fort
Who led soldiers at Fort Sumter?
Major Robert Anderson
What unarmored supply ship was sent to the Fort?
Star of the West
What was on the Star of the West?
Supplies and soldiers
What did South Carolina do with the Star of the West?
Opened Fire
What three things did Lincoln state in his Inaugural Address?
1. Southern States don't have the right to secede
2. Anyone who uses violence in support of secession is a revolutionary
3. We will not give up Federal property in Southern States
What country did the seceded states form?
Confederated States of America
What's another name for the Confederated States of America?
The Confederacy
Who was the president of the Confederated States of America?
Jefferson Davis
WHat would happen if Anderson and his men left Fort Sumter?
It'd look like they're caving in
WHat would happen if Lincoln didn't send reinforecement to fort sumter?
It would show the confederacy he's weak and won't stand up to them
What did Lincoln do for the troops at Fort Sumter?
Sent support
WHat would happen if the confederacy attacked F. sumter? (from their point of view)
They'd appear to be the agressor and look bad to people in the North and other countries
What would happen if the Confederacy duidn't attack Ft Sumter?
They'd appear to be caving in
What did the Confederacy tell Anderson to do?
Who was the general that told ANderson to surrender?
General P.G.T. Beauregard
Who won the Battle of Ft. Sumter?
Where were people angry about their state seceding from the Union?
What did the Mountain Virginians do?
Seceded from Virginia, formed West Virginia
What four advantages did the North have in the war?
1. Manpower
2. Industrial production
3. Transportation
4. Production of food
What could the North produce more of than the south?
Weapons of war, food
How many miles of track did the North have compared to the south?
20,000 v. 10,000
What four advantages did the South have?
1. Defense of their own land
2. North has long supply lines, South's are short
3. South was more unified in their desire to fight
4. Cotton (GB and France)

Deck Info