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BIO 1510: Lecture Exam 3-4: 37


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specialized membrane proteins (faster movement than osmosis)
process of capillary action up plants from roots
Direction of Materials through Vascular Tissues
xylem goes up
phloem goes both ways
layer of cells surrounded by casperian strip

gives cells control of what enters
turgor pressure
pressure that a liquid exerts on its container
Open & close because of turgor pressure of guard cells

let CO2 enter for photosynthesis
When are stomata open or close?
When water is abundant, it enters guard cells via osmosis, which increases turgor pressure & opens stomata

When water is scarce, it leaves guard cells, which decreases turgor pressure & closes stomata
C4 plants
have enzymes with high affinities for CO2

gather CO2 from leaf surface even when stomata are closed
CAM plants
stomata only open at night

CO2 is “banked” for use during the day
Carbohydrate Transfer
Phloem is bidirectional – food moved up and down the plant

Within tubes, food is transported in water via turgor pressure (transport does not require energy)

Energy (ATP) is required to move food into phloem or out of the phloem

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