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CV pathophysiology


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heart located in the
1) thoracic cavity
2) pericardial cavity
3) mediastinum
4) ventral body cavity
inferiorly, close to the surface
to the left
resting on the diaphragm
1) fibrous
2) serous=parietal&visceral
fibrous pericardium
anchors it to diaphragm & great vessel
prevents overfilling of the origin
visceral layer of serous pericardium
pericardial cavity
in bet. parietal layer of serous pericardium & visceral layer of serous pericardium
filled with the pericardium fluid
decrease friction
blood supply is carried out by the coronary system
Thebesian veins
as mush as 40% of the venous return from the arterial muocardium directly to the R and L arterial cavities
anterior venous system
3 veins that empty directly into the RA
coronary sinus system
a series of superficial veins covering mainly over the LV and draining the deeper myocardium
coronary sinus
a large venous chamber
runs in the post part of the coronary groove
drains in teh RA near the tricuspid valve (thebesian valve)
85% of coronary sinus outflow represents?
venous flow from the LV
cardiac cycle
the cardiac events that occur from the beginning of one cycle to the beginning of the next
each cardiac cycle is initiated by?
spontaneous generation of an action potential in the SA node
cardiac output
the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle per unit of time
CO at rest
CO to
brain 13%
cardiac muscle 4%
kidneys 20-25%
stroke volume
same for both ventricles
SV is affected by?
1) venous return
2) peripheral resistance
3) ANS
Starling's Law of the heart
if all factors return constant, the SV is determined by the FORCE of the contraction
the strength of contraction
increase in proportion to the LENGHS of the vent. muscle fibers
end-diastolic volume
the quantity of blood in the ventricles just prior to their contraction
end-diastolic volume determines
the degree of tension of the muscle when it begins to contract
resistance against which the ventricles must pump
sensors which respond to distension of arterial wall as a result of increase in pressure
baroreceptors triggers
para-sympathetic stimulation
<HR, <cardiac contract., <CO, <BP
respond to the concentration of O2 and CO2 in the blood (PO2 & PCO2)
chemoreceptors located in
carotid and aortic bodies
Chordae tendineae
bands of fibrous tissue that attach on one end to the edges of the tricuspid and mitral valves and on the other end to the papillary muscles that anchor the valves
coronary perfusion happens
function of valve
is from PRESSURE gradient,
not depend on any muscular contraction
function of pulmonary circulation
gas exchange and oxigenation of blood
all organs have lymphatic vessels adn tissued except for?
brain and liver
SA node
60-100 IMPULSES/min (not beats)
isovolumetric contraction phase
bet. the start of vent. systole and the opening of the semilunar valves
there is contraction of the ventricles, but no empthying
a rapid rise in vent. pressure
isovolumetric relaxation
bet. the closing of the semilunar valves and the opening of the AV valves
a drastic decrease in vent. pressure without a change in vent. volume
ventricular filling
1) vent. filling
2) arerial contraction
ventricular systole
=atria in diastole
1) isovolumetric contraction phase
2) vent. ejection phase
early diastole
1) isovolumetric relaxation
2) ventricular filling

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