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Chapter 28: The Rest of the RNA viruses


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What are the arboviruses (describe and list)?
Arthropod borne viruses - togaviridae, flaviviridae, and bunyaviridae (think Paul BUNYAn in a TOGA, bitten by a mosquito (arthropod) who likes the FLAVor of his blood)
Rubivirus is from which class of viruses? What disease does it cause and what is its most feared manifestation?
Togaviridae (group of arboviruses).
Causes rubella, which can cause terrible congenital defects (think toRches)
Which body areas are affected in congenital rubella?
1. Heart (PDA, septal defects, etc.)
2. Eye (cataracts, etc)
3. CNS (mental retardation, microcephaly, etc)
Dengue fever: symptoms, cause?
Fever, painful backache, muscle and joint pain, and sever headache.
Flavivirus (an arbovirus) spread by mosquito
Poliovirus and Coxsackie A and B are examples of which type of viruses?
Enterovirus (picornavirus)
Enteroviruses infect which cell types?
Intestinal epithelial and lymphoid (tonsils, Peyer's patches) cells
Why did polio emerge in the 20th century?
Improvements in sanitation led to increased infection in the adult years (rather than childhood), with increased chances of developing paralytic poliomyelitis
What are the 3 disease manifestations of polio?
1. Asymptomatic or mild fever
2. Aseptic meningitis - recovery in 1 week
3. Paralytic poliomyelitis
Which polio vaccine is used in the US?
Sabin's attenuated poliovirus
Coxsackie A and B, echoviruses, and new enteroviruses can all cause which diseases?
1. Asymptomatic or mild febrile infections
2. Cold symptoms
3. Rashes
4. Aseptic meningitis
What is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in the US?
Differentiate Coxsackie A and B in terms of clinical manifestations?
Coxsackie A - Herpangina (mild self-limiting illness)
Coxsackie B - Pleurodynia (pleuritic pain), Myocarditis/Pericarditis
Which viruses cause the common cold?
Rhinovirus and coronavirus
Which viruses cause diarrhea?
Calciviridae and Rotavirus
Describe the progression of rabies?
When a human is bitten, the virus replicates locally for a few days, then migrates (over weeks to a year) up nerve axons to the CNS, causing a fatal encephalitis
How should a person bitten by a suspected rabid animal be treated? This regimen is similar to which other infectious disease?
Give human rabies immune globulin (passive immunization) followed by injections of the killed rabies virus vaccine (active immunization). Similar to treatment of tetanus.
How can Ebola epidemics be controlled?
Barrier precautions to avoid contact with infected body fluids, use of sterile needles, and proper disposal of corpses.

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