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crim 410


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factors associated with violence
there are 6
personal traits
murderous youths suffer signs of major neurological impairment such as low intelligence on iq tests, psychotic close relatives, and psychotic symptoms.
ineffective families
abusive. parents are aggressive role models. kids with history of abuse are more likely to commit- "cycle of violence" stages of development 1. brutalization 2. violent performances 3. viulency-feel powerful
these traits cut across all sex/race barriers
evolutionary factors/human instinct
freud believed that human aggression and vilence are produced by instinctual drives (2) 1. eros-the life instinct. drives people toward self fulfillment and enjoyment. 2.thanatos-the death instinct. produces self distruction
cultural values
areas that experience violence seem to cluster together
-creates a subculture of violence.
-In this subculture, a potent theme of violence influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships.
substance abuse
psychopharmacological-agrgression is the direct consequence of taking drugs.
2. economic compulsive-need $ for dugs, so you commit crimes
3. systemic link- fighting over territory and drug quality contributes to harm. gang related.
firearm availability
when guns are present, it makes it all that much easier
nature and extent of murder
80% of victims are men.
90% of offenders are men
majority are under 25
black homicide rate is 8x that of white.
blacks kill blacks, whites kill whites.
girlfriends end up dead more than wives... that trend is growing
dead husbands/boyfriends are going down due to more options
felony murder-when you're in the process of committing a felony and you have to kill someone.
stranger v. acquaintance murder
stranger homicides are usually felony homicides
acquaintance homicides involve disputs between family, friends and acquaintances. they're often the result of long-simmering dispute motivated by revenge, dispute resolution, jealousy, drug deals, racial bias, or threats to identity or status.
serial killers- characteristics
-typically a lot of past vilence (back to childhood
-tend to be sociopaths. they're anti social and have NO REMORSE for what they do.
-only %1 of murders are from serial murderers
-usually kill people they don't know
-no guns. they want something more personal.
-married men. usually white
-victims usually have a profile for themselves
most common types of serial killers
1. thrill-power and control issue. victims will beg for their life and the offender will have all of the control.
2. mission-make the world a better place. they want to rid the wolrd of some particular evil. God tells them to. most psyhos are in this category.
3. expedient- killing for profit.
serial killers- apprehension
-motive-they don't have a motive so it's hard to find them because this is the first thing police look at.
-forensic evidence-most is gone by the time they find a body.
-VICAP- supposed to help w/ all of the info together. it's a federal database.
-profilers-bring someone in and they'll tell you all about the killer. in real life it doesn't work.
-geo mapping-look near their home and work.
serial killers-women
-more likely to poison or somther victims
-more likely to lure victims to their death instead of tracking or stalking
-substance abusers
-more disoders recognized
-bad family life early. below average education and low jobs
mass murderers v. serial killers
mass murderers kill all of the ppl. at one time. they're also usually caught.
-police kill them or they kill themselves
-very normal ppl.
-usually suffered a lot rejection
-frustration and something sets them off
-VERY different than serial killers. most lead normal lives and they could be your parent
typology-revent v. love v. profit v. terrorist
revenge-seek to get even with individuals or society at large
love-motivated by a warped sense of devotion
3. profit-usually trying to cover up a crime, eliminate a witness, or carry our a criminal conspiracy
4. terrorist-trying to send a message.
-94,000 rapes or attempted rapes were reported to u.s. police in 2002
-been on a decade long decline
-high density areas have much more rape, but they are also the areas where rapes are dropping
-45% are under 25. 63% are white.
-warmer weather helps
-rapes are underrreported by about 2/3.
types of rapists (Groth) anger v power v sadistic
anger rape-occurs when sexuality becomes a means of expressing and discharging pent-up anger and rage.
power rape- an attacker who does not want to harm his victim as much as he wants to possess her sexually.
sadistic rape-involves both sexuality and aggression. bound up in ritual. the real crazies.
types of rape- date v marital v statutory
date rape-people think they may be owed sex. seriously underreported.
marital rape-part of an overall pattern of spousal abuse.
statutory rape= refers to sexual relations between an underage minor female and an adult male.
causees of rapebiological v socialization v psychological v social learning v sexual
1. biological- evolutionary aspects of the male sexual drive.
2. male socialization-some men think that women want them to play hard with them. "no means yes"
3. psychological abnormality-personality disorder or mental illness.
4. social learning-sexual aggression may be learned through interaction with peers who articulate attitudes supportive of sexual violence
5.sexual-younger people may rape for sexual gratification while older rapists may be in it for power and control
proving rape
-very hard
-judges fear that women may charge men to get back at them
-people think that women may have caused it.
-prosecutors must establish that the act was forced and violent and that no question of voluntary cmpliance exists
-question the victim's moral character
-a traumatized victim may I.D. the wrong man
rape-legal reforms
-shield laws- protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case.
robbery-nature and extent
robbery- the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, scustody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the vitim in fear
-rate down more than 44% since '92
-northeastern states have the highest robbery rates by far.
armed robbery v. acquaintance robbery
armed robber- not a professional. isolated stores are better targets. happens more in the winter. choose female victims.
acquaintance robbery-people know the offender. more likely to assault their victim. more likely to steal from their family.
hate crime motivation (thrill seeking v. reactive v. mission v. retaliatory
thrill seeking- hat emongers join forces to have fun by bashing minorities or destroying property. gives them a sadistic thrill.
ractive (defensive)- rationalize their behavior as a defensive stand taken against outsiders whom they believe threaten their community or way of life.
mission hate-see if as their duty to rid the world of evil. KKK. want to eliminate entire groups.
retaliatory- committed in response to a hate crime, whether real or perceived.
nature and extent of hate crimes
have to do with religious, sexual-orientation bias, bias against an ethnicity or national origin, physical or mental disability.
-most common is assault. property crimes are also popular.
-most victims know their attackers
terrorism (political)
-anything aimed at political change 5 TYPES
1. nationalistic-seeks to form separate national group
2. revolutionary-want to overthrow the current govt. and establish a new one
3. state sponsored-wen govt. uses terorism by states as a form of foreign or domestic policies
4. cause based-a relgious, social, or political cause. You are making a statemtent.
5. environmental- using violence to slow down development or business that harms the environment or animals
terrorism (criminal)
-personal gain (blackmail, intimidation, etc.)
-ex. mob extorting $ from businesses, kidnapping for $
-unibomber, D.C. sniper
terrorism- motivation
1. one view is that terrorists are emotionally disturbed invidivuals who act out their psychosis within the confines of violent groups.
2. terrorists hold extreme idealogical belifs that prompt their behavior.
characteristics of drug atticts 1880s v. 1920s
1880-opium huge
1920-cocaine and heroin
demise of patent medicines
temperance movement
Pure food and drug act (1906)
required manufacturers to list the amounts of habit-forming drugs in products on the labels but did not restrict their use.
harrison act (1914)
restricted the importation, manufacture, sale, and dispensing of narcotics (any drug that produces sleep and relives pain, such as heroin, morphine, and opium.)
Marijuana Tax Act (1937)
required registration and payment of a tax by all persons who imported, sold, or manufactured marijuana.
Anti-Drug abuse act of 1986
set new standards for minimum and maximum sentences for drug offenders, increased penalites for most offenses, and created a new drug penalty classification for large-scale offenses.
Anti-drug abuse act of 1988
created a coordinated national drug policy under a "drug czar", set treatment and prevention priorities, and symbolizing the government's hard-line stance against drug dealing imposed the death penalty for drug-related killings
Temperance Movement-Prohibition
-fueled by the belief that the purity of the u.s. agrarian culture was being destroyed by the growth of cities.
causes of abuse-subcultural
because a disproportionate number of drug abusers are poor, the onset of drug use can be tied to such factors as rcial prejudice, devalued identities, low self-esteem, poor socioeconomic status, and the high level of mistrust, negativism, and defiance found in poverished areas.
causes of abuse-psychological
some experts hav elinked substance abuse to psychological deficits such as impaired cognitive functioning, personality disturbance, and emotional problems that can strike people in any economic class.
causes of abuse-genetic factors
the biological children of alcoholics reared by non-alcoholic adoptive parents develop alcohol problems more often than the biological children of the adoptive parents.
causes of abuse-social learning
suggests that drug abuse may also result from observing parental drug use.
causes of abuse-rational choice
some may use drugs and alcohol because they want to enjoy their effects.
relationship between drugs and crime
-there is a huge use of drugs before crime is committed.
-urinalysis tells the story that many drink heavily and/or use drugs before committing crime.
-social science conclusion-bad decision making on the behalf of the user is linked to a weakening of the social bond that leads to anti-social behaviors.
drug control-source
-to deter the sale and importation of drugs through the systematic apprehension of large-volume drug dealers, coupled with the enforcement of strict drug laws that carry heavy penalties.
-problems: drug $ is a huge business for other countries, we would only need about 10% of the crop to sustain our use
drug control-interdiction
law enforcement efforts have also been directed at intercepting drug supplies as they enter the country
-problems: U.S. borders are so vast and unprotected that it's hard for this to be successful.

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