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PSYCH EXAM 2 LOTS O' NOTES

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
reinforcer
in operant conditioning any even that strenthens the behavior it follows
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% percent of the time
informational influence
go along with it because you think people have information you dont
attribution theory
suggests how we explain someones behavior -- by crediiting either the situation or the persons disposition
deindividuation
the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
after images
after you star at someting long enough and then stare at something that is blank you will see their opposite colors (after images)
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
discrimination
classical tell difference between 2 stimuli = difference
blind spot
a certain spot of retina there are nerves coming together creating optic nerve, no rods and cones --> brain fills it in
gestalt principles
group pics and images in different ways depending, on how they're organized, whole - sum of its parts
relative height
we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. because we perceive the lower part of a figure -ground illustration as closer we perceive it as figure
conditioned response CR
in classical conditioing the learned response to a preveiously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (cs)
far sightedness
a condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina
group polariszation
the enhancment of groups prevailing inclinatiions through discussion within the group
fundamentl attribution error
the tendency for observers when analyzing another's behave to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of perosonal disposition
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior it followes
linear perspective
parallel lines such as railroad tracs appear to converge with distance
blindspot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
retina
the light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptro rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the roessing of visual information
group think
group gets together and discuss
accomodation
the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
variable ratio schedule
in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
absolute threshold
you can detect it a very small (something) can only hear it, smell it or something half te time
figure vs. ground
the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from thier surroundings
variable - ratio
random response
perceptual constancies (size, shape, lightness)
perceiving objects as unchanging having consistent lightness color shape and size even as illumination and retinal images change
young helmholtz theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors one most sesitive to red, one to green, one to blue -- which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
accomadation
when your looking at something far away the lens of your curves to adjust to it
group polarization
when ppl get together and share beliefs much more likely to be extreme with their beliefs, a result of group think
informational social influence
infuence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
young H theory
blue red and green are main colors they work together to make all colors
opponent process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
relative brightness (shading
nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes
gestalt principles
an organized wole gestalt psychologistists believe that our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
perceptual constancies
even though different images are being considered the same even though size on retina was changed
fixed - ratio
behavior reinforced get food every ten presses
relative size
if we assume that 2 objects are similar in size we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farter away...while driving distant pedestrians appear smaller
normative influence
give wrong answer, because everyone else is doing it
classical conditioning
a type of learingin in which an organism comes to associate stimuli a nuetral stimulus that signals n unconditioned stimulus
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping ro reducing negative stimuli such as shcok a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removied after a response strenthens the response (NOTE: THIS IS NOT PUNISHMENT)
kinethesis
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experiences or them
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another
interposition
if one object partially blocks our view of another we perceive it as closer
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information
conditioned stimulus CS
in classical conditioning an originaly irrevlevant stimulus that after association with an underconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response
cones
retinal receptor cless that are concentrated near the center fo the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions the conesdetect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
normative social influence
influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
acuity
the sharpness of vision
trichromat
see all three colors
factors that affect bystander intervention
notice incident, interpret incident as emergency, assume responsibility
near sightedness
a codition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
relative motion
as we move objects tha are actually stable may appear to move
fixed ratio schedule
in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
opperant conditioning
reward/punishment
dichromat
seeing two colors
cognitive dissonance theory
if you go agains your morals (an honors student who rots and lights a couch on fire) change beliefs to resolve what you did caught up in the moment, Im usually good, but I was caught in moment
monochrmat
seeing only one color
visual capture
the tendency for vision to domimnate the other senses
fovea
the central cocal point in the retina around which the eyes cones cluster
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave
role behavior
zimbardo studies, so involved with playing role they lost their own morals, downing - if you area character who is non idable they are more likely to adapt their role
monocular depth cues
depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
difference threshold
amoung of change of sight sound smell in order to recognize...amount of stimuli to cahnge for you to notice to change
overjustification
over rewarding something
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
unconditioned stimulus US
in classical conditioning a stimulus that unconditionally -- naturally and automatically -- triggers a response
lens
the transparent sturcture behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
convergence
a bionocular cue for perceiving depth, the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object teh greater the inward strain the closer the object
social facilitation
stronger responses simpel or well learened tasks in the presense of others
zimbardo studies
designated college students as guards or prisoners told the guards to enforce the laws of the prison even thought itw as just a study the people forgot and broke down and rebelled
texture gradient
a gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine indistinct texture signals increasing distance objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed
rods
retinal receptors that detect black white and gray neccessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones dont respond
fixed interval schedule
in operant conditiong a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response ony after a specified time has elapsed
milgram studies
a person becomes a teacher and a student and when the student gets a question wrong they get shocked disobediant were the minority
unconditioned response UR
in classical conditioning the unlearned naturally occuring repsonse to the unconditioned stiulus US such as salivation when food is in the mouth
fixed - interval
time has gone by 5 minutes = get food
bionocular depth cues
depth cues such as retinal disparity and convergence that depend on the use of two eyes
dindividualization
people feel anonymous and break morals, brough ppl in a dark room with coats -- deindentified, bright room, wore clothes, name tags --> gave shocks - teacher and leaner
conformity increases when
one is made to feel incompetant or insecure, group has at least 3 people, the group is unanimous, one admires the groups status and attractiveness, one has made no prior commmitment to any response, others in the group observe ones behavior, ones culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
visual capture
vision always winds when it's conflciting with something else
variable - interval
raodnom with time
generalization
the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
top down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental process as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectation
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meanignful objects and events
classical conditioning
biological response
variable interval schedule
in operant conditioning a reinforcement scheduel that reinforces a response at unpredicatble intervals
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
extinction
the diminishing of a condioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
diffusion responsibility
someone else will handle it
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
transduction
process where your brain takes oudoor stimulus and your brain organize it and interprets it
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
relative clarity
because light from distant objects passes through atmosphere we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strenthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminshed if followed by a punisher
foot in the door phenomenon
the tendency for people who ahve first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
conformity
adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (also called just noticeable difference of ind.)
problems with punishment
children who are spanked are most likely at risk for aggression deression and low selfesteem, punishment can create fear and the child associates this fear with person giving the punishment
discrimination
in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do ot signal an unconditioned stimulus
top-down
your beliefs change what you see
opponent process theory
after images red-green black-white, yellow-blue
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus as in the cocktail party effect
bottom up proccessing
working form sensation to perception, see something then inform and organize
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their eforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviros by presenting positive stimuli such as food a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response
observational learning
learning by observing others
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meangingful objects and events
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another in sensation the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights sounds and smells into neural impulses our brains can interpret
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from two eyeballs the brain computers distance the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images the closer the object
relative height
closer to horizon the farther away it is
asch studies
as long as 1 person goes agains the crowd other people will most likely help, as long as 1 person said no your more likely too example of normative influence
weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ be a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant stimulation

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