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psychology exam II 2


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name the models of abnormal behavior
boilogical/medical, behavioral/cognitive, psychodynamic, legal, moral
what is endogenous depression?
generated from within, maybe chemical basis
what is exogenous depression?
caused by something in the external environment
what is DSM?
diagnostic statistical manual, used to label depression or abnormal behavior
name three drugs used to treat depression
Serotinin: TCA, MAOI, SSRI
what are actions of depression drugs
mood, side effects, risk wih overdose, rosk with drug interaction
what causes schizophrenia?
overactivity of dopamine
What does TCA do
its not really focused which tweaks the sympathetic nervous system, could prepare for stress
what does MAOI do
keep the neurotransmitter from being broken down. not necessarily increasing serotonin but keeping it from breaking down. not targeting depression, instead euphoria
SSRI's are inefficient because
they leave risks
NEVER do what to target a sympton
take 2 classes of drugs at once
schizophrenia is __ and has a __ __
hereditary, biological basis
phenothiazines (1950s) were inefficient because...
high sedation effects, involuntary movement
low sedation, high involuntary movement
new generation
low sedation, low inv movement, low side effects
addiction, withdrawls
needing more of the drug to get desired effect
name the 6 general drug effects
dependancy, tolerance, side effects, rebound effects, drug interactions
what are the 4 categories of psychoactive drugs
stimulants, depressants, opiates, psychedelics
should depressants and stimulants be mixed
no, they dont neutralize each other and the effects are dangerous
name 3 pathways to stimulation
dopamine, acetylcholine, adenosine
4 methods of study of hormones and behavior
castration, antagonists, blood assays, uptake
what happens at the end of the first trimester?
testosterone is released. if its there its a male if not its female
what do genetics control
protein production, which influences hormones
what can u do to masculanize or feminize someone
inject hormones
all hormonal systems are controlled by what
other hormonal systems
name 4 drugs used for stimulation
amphetamine , cocaine -
arousal and euphoria

nicotine, caffeine-
name 3 drugs used as depressants
barbituates, benzodiazepines, ethanol

(sedation and sleep)
what are 6 general drug effects of psychoactive drugs
dependency, tolerance, side effects, rebound effects, drug interactiosn
4 psychoactive kinds of drugs
stimulants, depressants, opiates, psychedelics
enhance release of norepinephrine & dopamine, arousal and euphoria
4 stimulants
amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine
block reuptake of dopamine, arousal & euphoria
activate acetylcholine recepts, arousal
3 depressants
barbituates, benzodiazepines, ethanol
enhance GABA systems, sedation & sleep
enhance GABA, sedation &sleep
enhance GABA, sedation & sleep
2 opiates
Endogenous (endorphins, enkephalin), Exogenous (morphine, heroin)
endogenous opiates
activate opiate receptors, analgesia & euphoria
exogenous opiates
activate opiate receptors, analgesia & euphoria
4 psychedelics
LSD, MDMA (ecstacy), THC, PCP (angel dust)
act. ser. rec., alt. con.
MDMA (ex)
enhance ser. release, arousal & alt. con.
act. cannibal recpt., sedation & euphor & alt. con
many neurot. involved. anesthesia & psychosis
developmental effects: at the end of trimester
testosterone is released. if its there its a male and if not then female
what can u do to masculanize or feminize
inject hormones
the __ reads and regulates hormones
how does birth control work
it fools the hypothalamus by false estrogen levels
stress can be caused by something __ or many __ __
large, little things
stress is caused by the __ of a system, _______
misapplication, intense action
our environment has more what today
stressors, its adaptive
direct neuronal communication:
hypothalamus sends signal to adrenals to release adrenaline
__ are released under prolonged stress and allows you to __-
endorphins, maintain use of the body
dieting is hard because ____
cortisol stimulates hunger
neuroendocrine pathways of stress occur in the
lymbic system
hormones and stress- the normal ____
protective system of flight or fright
what drives abnormal stress responses?
allostatic load, unremitting stressor, uncertainty, mental activities
there are more pathways from the ___ to the ___ than reverse
limbic system to cortex
__ and ___ normally work in concert
adrenaline, cortisol
long term effects of being over stressed, adrenaline
hardening of arteries, hypertension. restricting blood flow.
what does a beta blocker do
blocks adrennaline receptors
long term effects of cortisol
inhibits immune system, damage to hippocampus, and amygdala, weight gain
long term effects of stress psychologically
anxiety, depression, inhibited social interaction, memory deficits
coping with stress:
low fat diet, exercise, sleep, no drugs, social
who said there was a fundamental difference between humans and animals
aristotle (humans reason and animals dont)
aristotles natural scale consisted of
darwin did not __ the concept of evolution but __ it
invent, expains
evolution is
adaptation, diversification, phyletic change
what are selecting agents
something acting on variation for success, ex: predators, temp, food, shelter
the __ is the most testable theory of evolution
model of skulls
who overused the concept of instinct
W. James (adaptation and functionalism)
who was behind the anti-instince movement, behaviorism
who was behind reintroduction
lorenz came up with __ to __. the __ relationship
genotype phenotype epigenetic
phenotype is influenced by an interaction of a complex environment with the genome
several genes influence one behavior
one gene can influence a number of behaviors
what is transcription
RNA codons encode for amino acids
what is translation
amino acids --> protein formation
genes DO NOT encode for behavior. genes encode for..
codon is a ..
triplet- sequence of bases
oxytocin- involved in ___
vasotosin is a protein in ___ that syncronize _____
amphibians, release of egg and sperm
heritability is the ____ in a population that is attributibal to ___
proportion of variation, genetics
natural selection involves
phenotypic variation, selecting agents, inheritance of characteristics, and differential reproductive success
nat. sel. and the evolutionary phenomena
adaptation, phyletic change, speciation
what are instincts
stereotyped, unlearned adaptations
what are the bases with genes to proteins
tryptophan --->____
what influences gene action?
what is drosphila
norm of reaction
most complex human behaviors are __
ultimate causation
survival & reproductive success
proximate causation
thinking and learning and all other stuff
___ tried to explain altruistic behavior (bee kills himself in defense of group)
hamilton devised __ selection
kin (kin share genes that help reproductive success)
what is inclusive fitness?
reproductive effort in helping kin
parental investment is
sex differences
mate choice:
females interested in resources while males are interested in health or attractiveness
sexual jealousy:
paternity uncertainty
Daly & wilson specialize in
child abuse

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