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Biology Chapter 3


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2 Categories of Lipids
  • Lipids with Fatty Acids
  • Lipids without Fatty Acids
2 Categories of Proteins
  • Fibrous Proteins
  • Globular Proteins
3 Categories of Carbohydrates

  • Monosachharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Polysaccharides
3 categories of Lipids with fatty acids
  • Glycerides: one, two, or 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol backbone
  • Phospholipids: phosephate group, one other polar group, two fatty acids attached to glycerol backbone
  • Waxes: lo
3 Categories of Nucleic Acids
  • Adenosine Phosphates
  • Nucleotide Enzymes
  • Nucleic Acids
5 categories of reactions
  1. Functional group transfer
  2. Electron Transfer
  3. Rearrangement
  4. Condensation
  5. Cleavage
  • Component of animal cell membranes
  • Precursor to many steroids and of vitamin D
A molecule splits into two smaller ones.
Through covalent bonding, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule.
Each carbon atom can share pairs of electrons with as many as ___ atoms.
...As many as four atoms.
Electron transfer
One or more electrons stripped from one molecule and donated to another molecule.
A class of protein that makes specific metabolic reactions proceed faster than they would on their own.
Functional Group
Various kinds of atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to the backbone.
Functional-group transfer
One molecule gives up a functional group, while another molecule accepts.
Organic Compounds 
Molecules of life, which have hydrogen and often other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms
A juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound into another.
four carbon rings; the number, position, and type of functional groups differ between various sterols
Structure of fibrous proteins
individual polypeptide chains, often linked into tough, water-insoluble moleucles
Structure of globular proteins

one or more polypeptide chains folded and linked into globular shapes

Have many roles in cell activities 

Use of Fats and oils
Energy storage
Use of Glucose
Energy source
Use of Sucrose
Form of sugar transported in plants
Uses of starc, cellulose,  and glycogen
  • Energy storage
  • Structural Roles

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