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Elements of Musical Style II


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a solo art song in German with keyboard accompaniment
an early romantic type of German Lied ased loosely on popular ballads of england and scotland
an old slang term for alternate lifestyles, often associated with the avant-garde in the arts
lyric, lyrical
melodious or songlike
an opera in german from the 18th or early 19th century; usually comic and used spoken dialogue between musical numbers
song cycle
a group of songs unified by a literary theme or story line. a song cycle is, therefore, distinct from a collection or anthology of songs.
words, usually poetic, set to music
the form of song composition where earch verse (or strophe) of text is set to the sam emusic
the portion of a pitch range used most consistently in a passage or a work, as opposed to the total range
slight, raphid fluctuations of pitch and/or instensity applied to sustained notes.
one or more notes that come before the firstfull measure of a phrase. More technically termed an "anacrusis" sometimes called a "pickup"
on a string instrument, the rapid and continuous repitiion of a single note. On a piano, the rapid an dcontinuous alternation of notes in a chord meant to resemble several string instruments playing the chord using tremolo technique
opera comique
french comic opera originating in the 18th century, employing spoken dialogue. A serious/tragic operatic type develooped form it, also called opera comique
the pattern of natural stresses (accents) in a text when spoken or sung; versification
refers to French art songs of the mid 19th century to today; it is the French equivalent of the German Lied. It is distinguished from chanson, or folk and popular song.
literally, "advance guard": Relating to new or experimental trens in the arts and preople associtated with those trends.
a movement in tfrench poetry during the second half of the 19th century. It employed ree verse and conveyed impressions by suggestion rather than by direct statement. Counter parts in the visual arts and in music were called Impressionism
in text setting, the technique of making textual accent patterns coincide with musical accent patterns at the levels of syllable, word, phrase, and sentence
in harmony, a triad whose root lieds a third above the tonic. The term can be gerealized to mean the relationship of any two chords lying a major or minor third apart
sweet, sweetly
any interval smaller than a semitone. Splitting semitones into quarter-tonies is the most common mircotonal application
bitonality, polytonality
the presence or impression of more than one key (tonality) in a single musical passage. bitonality has two keys at once; polytonality contains more than two simultaneous keys.
spatial music
music in which performing forces are sperated rather than grouped together traditionally. The most common spatial effects are splitting ensembles iwthin the hall and the offstage instruments or voice(s). IN 20th -century music, spatial effects have been used to add "dimension" and psecial "imaging" to sound.
Literally, "without tonality." In 20th century music the concious avoidance of tonalities (keys) in a piece of music, usually accomplished by avoiding traditional harmony and traditional treatment of consonance and dissonance
the simultaneous use of more than one meter
tone cluster
a chord with notes spaced very close, usually produced on the pianot by striking a group of keys with the hand, first, or forearm. The effect is very dissonant.
serial music, serialism
in the 20th century, music organized by a predetermined series. Most commonly , pitch is organized by serializing the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Called "12-tone music," this system provides an organizational alternative to tonality. A composer who writes serial music is called a serialist
indeterminacy, aleatory, "chance" music
a 20th century compositional technique in which the composer purposely leaves certain features of the music incomplete for teh performer(s) to determin at the moment of performance. The result in unpredictable, and usually no two presentations of an indeterminate work sound the same.
acceleratin gthe tempo of the music
whole-tone scale
a scale consisting of whole tones only (no half tones), six tones to the octave, Only two such scales are possble
12-tone, dodecaphonic
a method of composition in which all 12 tones of the chromatic scale are preordered serially and treated equally without regard to any key or to consonance and dissonance.
a sociable, privatge concert devoted to the music of Schubert, the composer being at the center of the music making
modified strophic
schubert sometimes retained elements of cyclic design, while varying others
in this procedure, melodic patterns may change and recur at will. alothough melodic regularity is avoided, the accompaniment acieves, unification by remaining, similar through out
dramatic scena
as in a scene of opera, the tempos, melodies, accompaniments, and moods in this type of song, can change often. Usually containing dialogue, a scena commonly employs recitatives.
A style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, using somewhat vague harmony and rhythm to evoke a mood, place, and natural phenomena.
quartal harmony
Harmony based on the interval of a perfect fourth, rather than on thirds.

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