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A & P Unit 3


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Can enzymes be used more than once?
Yes, they are reusable.
For what reasons are lipids used?
Used for reserve energy, vitamin storage and insulation.
How are carbohydrates categorized?
What are the 3 categories of carbohydrates?
Categorized based on molecular size.
How does a cell make ATP?
A cell will break down organic molecules to transfer the stored energy in them to ATP.  
What organic molecules? Perferable carbs, possibly lipids, and hopefully not protein.
How is enzyme regulation accomplished?
By changing the shape of the enzyme or filling its active site by temporarilyadding a molecule to it.
If DNA changes, which phase of protein structure also changes?
Primary protein structure.
Is the Krebs cycle about generating energy?
No, it is about ridding the cell of C (carbon) and O (oxygen).  The energy is in the H+ (hydrogen ions).
What are carbohydrates and what are the component atoms?
Carbohydrates are a fast energy source for cells and the component atoms are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (with a 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen ratio.)
What are cofactors and conenzymes?
Transfer agents, cofactors are metal ions and coenzymes are organic molecules-usually B vitamins.
What are disacchrides; which three of are most importance; and what is the molecular formula?
A 12 carbon sugar, made of 2 monosacchrides; Sucrose, Lactose and Maltose; c12 h22 O11
What are enzymes made of?
Protein, with non-protein components (cofactors) sometimes added to improve thier shape.
What are molecules always doing?
What are monosacchrides; what three of are most importance; and what is the molecular formula?
Simple sugars or 6 carbon sugars; Glucose, Fructose and Galactose; c6 h12 o6.
What are polysacchrides; which three are of most importance; which are plant products and which are human/animal products? 
Lots of simple sugars or a long chain of glucose; Glycogen, Cellulose and Starch; Celluse and Starch are plant products while Glycogen is a human/animal product.
What are the 4 nitrogen bases and what does the sequense of these bases determine?
A, T, C, and G.  The sequence determines the genetic code of DNA.
What are the 4 types of molecules?  Three we are studying and one we are not.
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acid (DNA/RNA)
What are the building blocks of DNA?
What makes up this structure?
Nucleotides.  Made of a sugar molecule (dioxyribose), a phosphate, and a nitrogen base.
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids, there are 20 types (shapes) of amino acids.
What are the component atoms of lipids?
What are the component molecules of lipids?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules.
What are the component atoms of protein?
C, H, O, N and S.  (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur)
What are the two components of a solution?  Define them both.
A solvent and a solute.
 Solvent - the part of the solution that is present in greatest amount.  In cells, it is water.
What are the two segmented parts of a gene?  Which part is cut out and when is it cut out?
Exon: coding parts of the gene
Intron: noncoding parts (junk), cut out during translation from splicing.
What are the two strands of DNA's double helix referred to as?  Which one codes for protein?
Antisense strand codes for protein and sense strand does not.
What are the types of enzyme inhibitors?
Which type is a normal cell product?
Competitive inhibitors and noncompetitive inhibitors.
Noncompetitive inhibitors are normal cell products and are sometimes called endproduct inhibitors.
What determines the shape of a protein and why is the shape so important.
The shape is determined by DNA and the shape of a protein determines its function.
What determines the shape of a protein?
What determines the primary protein structure?
Where does protein synthesis occur?
The types and sequences of the amino acids.
DNA controls the primary protein structure.
Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosomes.
What do proteins do?
Regulate cell functions (enzymes) and provide structural support (collagen).
What do transfer agents do?
Assist an enzyme by taking electrons from an enzyme and transer them to other molecules.  (clean up the enzyme)
What does mRNA do?  What is this process called?  How big is an mRNA molecule?
mRNA copies the gene on DNA, this is called transcription.  An mRNA molecule is single stranded and the same size as a gene.
What does the suffix -ose signify?

What does the suffix -ase signify?
-ose signifies a carbohydrate.

-ase signifies an enzyme.
What does the term semiconservative DNA replication mean?
One strand of each new double helix is from the original DNA helix. (the cell is conserving parts)
What factors affect the rate of diffusion?
2)Concentration of molecules in solution
3)Surface area of plasma membrane (microvilli let molecules slide across easily)
4)Plasma membrane permeability: only small, uncharged molecules can pass through by diffusion
What gives enzymes their precise shape and what does that shape determine.
Because they are proteins, they have a very precise shape, which determines what molecule (SUBSTRATE!!!) they will interact with.
What is a codon?  What code does it copy?
A 3 base segment of mRNA that is a mirror image of a DNA triplet.  It copies the code for a single amino acid.
What is a denatured enzyme?

What factors may denature an enzyme?
An enzyme whose active site has been altered so it will no longer function.  This can be temporary or permenant.
pH (noncompetitive inhibitors) and temperature (heat denatures enzymes)
What is a DNA triplet?

What is a gene?
A sequence of 3 NUCLEOTIDES that is the genetic code for ONE AMINO ACID.
A gene is a LONG SEGMENT of DNA that is the code for ONE PROTEIN.
What is a hypertonic solution?

What effect will this have on the cell.
A solution outside the cell that has more solute and less solvent than the cell has.
This will shrink the cell. (pulls out water)
What is a hypotonic solution?

What effect will this have on the cell?
A solution outside the cell that has less solute and more solvent than the cell has.
This will increase the size or weight of the cell. (water will go into the cell)
What is a saturated fat?  What is the texture and what is it a product of?
It is when a fatty acid has as much hydrogen as it can carry.  It is usually solid and an animal product. 
What is active transport?
When the cell provides energy to move molecules across the plasma membrane.
   a)against the concentration gradient
   b)endocytosis:phagocytosis, pinocytosis
What is an isotonic solution?

How will this affect the cell?
A solution outside the cell whose concentration of water and solutes is equal to that inside the cell.
This will have no effect on the cell.
What is an unsaturated fat?  What is the texture and what is it a product of?
It is when a fatty acid has the potential to carry more hydrogens causing a gap or bend in the chain.  It is usually liquid and a plant product.
What is anaerobic respiration?
In the absence of oxygen, the hydrogens must be returned to pyruvic acid, producing lactic acid and ending cellular respiration. 
What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate - a molecule that is capable of delivering energy in small, precise amounts to a reaction.
What is Brownian movement?

What is the significance of the amount of space between molecules.
The random movement of molecules.

The closer they are to each other, the faster and farther they will move away from each other.
What is cellular respiration?
The production of ATP from organic molecules.
What is cellulose?  What does it do for plants vs. humans?  How are the molecules organized?
A plant fiber.  Used in plants for structural support.  In humans the large fiber chains have low energy and simulate the intestines.  Every other molecule is upside down in the chain.
What is coenzyme NAD?
Picks up H+ (hydrogen ions) and pushes them to another part of the mitochondria.  It is the Bus.
What is dehydration synthesis?
What are the molecules contributing?
A condensation reaction that removes water to join 2 molecules.  
One molecule contributes H (hydrogen) the other OH (hydroxide).
What is diffusion?
The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until dynamic equilibrium has been reached.  (Still moving and equally dispersed)
What is DNA Polymerase?
Enzymes that duplicate long chains of DNA.
What is DNA?
Where is it located?
DNA is the genetic code for protein synthesis.  It is located in the nucleus on chromosomes (some maternal DNA is in the mitochondria).
What is electron transport?
How many ATP are produced?
The big producer of energy that receives the hydrogen atoms from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
34 ATP are produced.
What is enzyme regulation?

When cells will temporarily inhibit thier enzymes to regulate reactions in side a cell.

What is facilitated diffusion?

Do cells spend energy moving this way?
Carrier molecules in the plasma membrane assist molecules an ions to move through the plasma membrane.
Cells do not use any energy for any type of diffusion.
What is glycogen?  How are the molecules organized?
The storage form of glucose in the body.  Organized in branched chains.
What is glycolysis and what are the end products?
How many molecules of ATP are released?
The process of splitting glucose in 1/2, allowing it to fit into the mitochondria.  This creates two molecules of pyruvic acid makes 4 molecules of ATP.
What is hydrolysis?
What are the molecules receiving?
The splitting of a large molecule into 2 smaller ones by added water.
One molecule receives the H, the other the OH.
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water through a cell membrane.
What is passive transport?

What are three examples of passive transport?
When the cell provides no energy to move molecules in or out of a cell.
Examples are diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion.
What is peptide bond?
Brings amino group to a carboxide group.
What is starch? How is it stored in plants vs. humans?  How are the molecules arranged?
Energy-storage that is high in calories.  Plants store it as starch, humans store it as glycogen.  Molecules are arranged in a spiral chain.
What is the concentration gradiente?
The way molecules always flow downhill, from high to low concentration.
What is the function of an enzyme?
To speed up reaction rates in a cell by reducing the amount of energy needed to force a reaction to begin. (What is this energy called? -Activation energy)
What is the Krebs cycle?  Where does it take place?
What is the waste product?
Breaks down the products of glycolysis (pyruvic acids).
Takes place in the mitochondria.
The waste product is CO2
What is the most efficient way for cells to use thier energy?
The energy must be converted from large, stable storage molecule into several smaller usable, unstable ones.
What is the primary protein structure?
The type and sequence of amino acids for a protein.
What is the secondary protein structure?
The folds, the way it starts to bend or coil into shape.
What is the speed of diffusion?
Diffusion is a very slow process, smaller cells diffuse faster than larger ones.
What is the tertiary (3rd) protein sturcture?
The final folding, the final 3 dementional shape.
What is tonicity?

How is tonicity determined?
The ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell.
Tonicity is determined by comparing the concentration of solutes outside the cell to the concentration of solutes in the cytoplasm.
What is tRNA's job?
Delivers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes for translation of mRNA.  
What molecule is considered a savings account and which is spending cash and why?
c6h12o6 = savings account, b/c it is stable
A~P~P~P = spending cash, unstable due to the negatively charged phosphates.
What must all systems be supplied with in order for them to function?
What must happen before cellular respiration can begin?
The food molecule must be made smaller to fit into the mitochondria.(= Glycolysis)
What solution is iso-, hypo-, or hypertonic?
The SOLUTIONS OUTSIDE THE CELL, CELLS are NOT iso-, hypo-, and hypertonic.
What stage of the cell cycle is the cell going through during DNA replication?  When does this have to occur?
Mitosis, must occur prior to cell division.
Where does mRNA travel? and why?
It carries a gene outside the nucleus to the ribosomes for translation and protien synthesis.
Which cell organelle converts carbohydrates to energy?
Where are are carbohydrates located?
Mitochondria converts carbohydrates to energy.
Carbohydrates are also located on the outside of the plasma membrane to assist membrane functions.
Which strand of the double helix is used in DNA replication?  What is it the pattern for?
Sense strand DNA.  It is the pattern for the molecule that makes protein.
Why are enzymes called highly specific?

What part of the enzyme controls this?
Each enzyme will only fit one type of substrate.

The ACTIVE SITE of the enzyme determines which substrate it will work with.
Why are enzymes important in the human body?
Becuase they allow reactions to happen faster and at our body temperature.
Why do some molecules move by facilitated diffusion?
These molecules may be too big or charged and therefore cannot move through the plasma membrane by regular diffusion.

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