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An Age of Modernity and Anxiety


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German physicist, originator of the quantum theory
the short, irregular bursts that energy radiates in; discrete packets of energy
explains that time and space do not exist independent of human observance and that matter is energy in a different form
Einstein's theory of relativity
"that which does not kill me makes me stronger"; thought that bourgeois society was decadent and incapable of true creativity - lays the blame on preference of science and reason rather than emotion and instinct; one of the main critics of Chri
accepts rationalism as a useful tool for practical problems, but not a tool that was able to acheive ultimate truth; "life force" was in everything, tying together all things and was beyond rationality - could only be understood intuitively
combines Bergson's "life force" and Nietzche's limits on rationalism with some revolutionary socialism (must acheive our means through physical force)
Georges Sorel
humans influenced by unconcious desires and some memories were repressed by concious mind; inner life was a constant conflict between the id (center of unconciousness, expresses true desire) the ego (seat of reason) and the superego (restraints absorbed
leading proponent of Social Darwinism; society evolves through a struggle for survival in which the fittest survive and the weakest die out, therefore, state should not intervene by trying to help the poor; applied by radical nationalists and racists as
applies Darwin's theories to war; wrote "Germany and the Next War"; notion of the volk - the people and their fatherland
Friedrich von Bernhardt
Germans were the pure successors, must fight against inferior races
in his "Life of Jesus", denied the divinity of Jesus, but still thought that Jesus was a life well lived and a good model that should be followed
Ernst Renan
in his "Syllabus of Errors", had an outright rejection of modernity; denied that papacy had to reconcile old Christian thought with new ideas of progress; condemned nationalism, socialism, etc.
Pius IX
wrote the DeRerum Novarum; represented the Catholic compromise with the modern world; allowed evolution as a hypothesis; criticized capitalism, but agreed with owning private property; agreed with socialism, but condemed Marxism as anti-religious
attempt by the Church to re-interpret Christianity; decided that the Bible was not the literal word of God but, rather, guidelines to live by; get involved in many reforms and encourage Church to create a greater sense of community
one of the evangelical missions that emerged to administer to the poor
Salvation Army

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