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Bio -Ch.5


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what are the 3 principles of modern cell theory?
1.every living organism is made up of one or more cells
2.smalles organisms are single cells, cells are units of multiceullar organisms
3.all cells arise from pre-existing cells
what 5 functions are common to all cells?
obtain nutrients and energy from environemnt, synthesize proteins, eliminate waste, interact with other cells, reproduce
what is DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid acid
blue pring in all cells that has instructions for producing all other parts of the cell
where is the DNA in prokaryotic and eurkaroytic cells?
Eukaryotic: membrane enclosed nucleous
Prokaryotic: not enclosed within a membrane
what is the cytoplasm?
contains all material inside the plasma membrane but outside the region of the cell that contains the DNA
what happens in they cytoplasm?
metobolic actions/activities (protein synthesis)
what is the range of size for pro and euk cells?
euk: more than 10 micometers
pro: less that 5
what are most cells small? size goes up, SA to vol ratio goes down, less membrane to go around
2.if large, takes longer to diffuse, wouldnt be able to live
pro vs. euk
euk: nucleus (contains DNA), larger, linear chromosomes
pro: nucleoid (DNA w/o membrane), smaller, circular chromosomes, bacteria/archaea
what do pili do?
proteins that project outward on bacteria
help certain infectious bacteria stick to host tissues and exchange DNA b/t cells
describe a prokaryotic chromosome
single, circular, coiled
where is the chromosome located?
what is the function of plasmids?
carry genes that give the cell speical properties like ability to inactivate antibiotecs
what do photosynthetic bacteria have that nonphotosynthetic do not?
internal membranes where proteins catalyze the synthesis of molecules in specific order
define organelle
membrane closed structures
what are the 3 parts of the nucleus and their functions?
1.nuclear envelope-exchange of molecules (large by proteins, small through pores)
2.chromatin-uses DNA --> RNA goes to cytoplasm used for protein synthesis
3.nucleolus-site for ribosome assembly
where are ribosomes manufactured?
manufactured and assembled in nucleolus
where are proteins manufactured?
by ribosomes in the ER
what are proteins used for in the cell?
1.catalyze and regulate chemical reactions
2.govern interactions b/t cell and its environment
3.structure (transfer info from DNA to RNA)
chemical rxns in cell, catalyzed by proteins, are responsible for what?
growth and repair, nutrient and energy aquisition and use, and reproduction
what structures makes up the internal membrane system?
plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, ER, Golgi, and lysosomes
how are they interconnected in function?
exhange membrane material, transfter membraneous materai to diff compartments
structure and function of vesicles
membrane bound sacs, come from ER, responsible fro taking proteins to ER
3 types and functions of vacuoles
1.contractile-excrete water
2.central-maintain water balance, dump site for hazardous waste, stores sugars and AA,, provides support w/ lysosomes and digest food, lets them diffuse out

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