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RNA polymerase
catalyzes transcription of DNA
the copyin g of the dNA message onto mRNA
reading of messenger RNA for protein synthesis
directs synthesis of a protein
binds to an amion oacid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorportated into a protein during translation
joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
segment of DNA where transcription begins
do not code for parts of proteins
do code for parts of proteins
vesicle formed from golgi complex; contains digestive enzymes
vesicles containing oxidases and catalase
tiny structure that contains proteases (proteolytic enzymes); degrade defective transporters
facilitated dffusion
passive movement of a substance down its concentration gradient via transmembrane proteins that act as transporters
primary active transport
transport of a substance across the membrane across its concentration gradient by pumps; transmembrane proteins that use energy supplied by hydrolysis of ATP
secondary active transport
indirectly uses energy obtained from the breakdown of ATP; involves symporters and antiporters
type of endocytosis in which large solid particles are taken in
type of endocytosis that involves the nonselective uptake of tiny droplets of extracellualr fluid
movememnt of materials out of the cell by fusing of secretory vesicles w/ the plasma membrane
receptor mediated endocytosis
process that allows a cell to take specific ligands from the ECF by forming vesicles
vesicular movement involving endocytosis on on eside of a cell and subsequent exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell
a positively charged ion
a negatively charged ion
which atom in H2O has greater electronegativity?
the oxygen atom than the hydrogens
Why would you expect ammonia to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules?
the N atom in ammoni ais electro negative; it attracts electrons stronger tha H atons; the nitrogen end has a slight negative charge whic hattracts the H's
exergonic rxn
reactants have more potential energy than the products
does a catalyst change potential energies?
NO. a catalyst lowers the activation energy needed to get a rxn going
phospholipid bilayer: hydrophilic and hydrophobic
polar head is hydrophilic and the nonpolar tail is hydrophobic
amino acid-minimum number of C and N atoms?
2 carbon and 1 nitrogen

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