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Frontal Cortex
Attention, executive functions
Frontal Lobe Personality
Apathy, inability to plan and focus attention, lack of drive; caused by lesions
Autonomic Nervous System
Comprised of Sympathetic Nervous System (fight or flight) and Parasympathetic Nervous System (deactivates)
Neurotransmitter controls muscle movements
ARAS (Ascending Reticular Activating System)
Behavioral arousal; provides stimulation to the entire cortex.
Bodily movements, motor responses
Breathing, heart rate, digestion
Consolidation of memory
Regulating metabolism, body temperature, eating, sex, controls the endocrine system
Relays all sensory information to the cerebral cortex...except for olfactory.
Split-Brain Patients
Something shown in the left visual field, cannot name the object.
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
Temporal Lobe
Memory loss
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)
Reduces mood swings, reduces libido, reduces vaginal dryness, reduces risk of osteoporosis
Inability to sit still.
Sustained muscle contractions and spasms
Involuntary movements of head, trunk, and limbs.
Parkinsonian Symptoms
Muscle stiffness, shuffling gait, stooped posture
Inability to use or understand spoken, symbolic, or written language
Antipsychotic drugs associated with relief of positive psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations.
REM Sleep and Aging
As one ages, both total sleep time and the proportion of REM sleep to non-REM sleep decreases.
Corpus Callosum
Connects the two hemispheres. Information perceived on the left side of the body gets projected to the right brain (and vice versa). The left hemisphere is responsible for most language functions. When the corpus callosum is severed, there is no communication between the two hemispheres.
EMG Biofeedback
More useful for treating tension headaches than migraines. For migraines, thermal biofeedback is more effective.
imipramine, chomipramine, amitryptline
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil
Fluoxetine, setraline, and paroxetine
Nardil and Parnate
Long Term Potentiation
Observed in hippocampal neurons and is thought to be responsible for structural changes in synapses that are related to the formation of memories.
Under-secretion of thyroxin. Symptoms include slow metabolism, reduced appetite, weight gain, lowered heart rate and body temperature, decreased sex drive, depression, and deficits in cognition.
What tests would you use to assess regional cerebral blood flow?
PET and fMRI
A beta-blocker that slows heart rate and other sympathetic nervous system activity. It is used to treat hypertension, migraines, and anxiety. Rapid withdrawal can result in headaches and palpitations.
What can damage to the hippocampus cause?
Impairment in the acquisition of new information.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Located in the hypothalmus. It controls circadian rhythms.
Left Cerebral Hemisphere
Language-related functions and analytic tasks.
Right Cerebral Hemisphere
Recognition of non-verbal sounds, drawing, and recognition of emotional state.
How does antipsychotic medication work?
It reduces the activity of dopamine by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. This can cause positive effects, but also side effects such as tardive dyskinesia and Parkinsonism.
Tactile Agnosia
Damage to the parietal lobe. Inability to recognize familiar objects.
The most effective medication to treat OCD is...
Valium, Xanax, Halcion, and Ativan. Major side effects are: drowsiness, impaired psychomotor abilities, and impaired short-term memory. It is not associated with impaired concept formation.
Cannon and Bard Theory
Emotions and thoughts occur more or less simultaneously.
James and Lange Theory
We first observe our behavior and then we make an attribution of that behavior in terms of some emotion.
Wernicke's Aphasia
The inability to understand spoken speech; receptive language.
Inability to execute purposeful movements.
The Hippocampus is responsible for...
Transfers information from short-term memory into long-term memory.
Left Frontal Cortex controls...
Verbal functions...expression of speech is on the left side.
Broca's Area
Responsible for expressive language. Located in the left frontal cortex.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Mental slowing, delayed reflexes, and bradycardia
Partial paralysis. Caused by damage to the pyramidal motor system, which consists of a pathway of neruons that descend from the brain and through the spinal cord. Weakness of movement.
Wernicke's area is located...
In the temporal lobe. Language comprehension.
Conduction Aphasia
A lesion of the pathway between Wernicke's and Broca's area. The person can speak clearly and understand language but cannot repeat what he or she has heard.
Inability to produce normal speech sounds.
A MRI of a patient in the early stages of Huntington's disease would show...
Reduced volume of the basal ganglia. Can be detected before a person exhibits symptoms.
The flow of cerbrospinal fluid through the ventricles is blocked, producing abnormal pressue, which causes brain damage and mental retardation.
Parkinson's Disease
Due to a degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra.
Side Effects of Lithium
Fine hand tremors, gastric distress, weight gain, fatigue, and mild confusion and disorientation.
Functional Amnesia
Memory problems that are due to psychological trauma, not injury to the brain. Characterized by loss of autobiographical information. Usually involves retrograde amnesia.
Migraine Headaches
Typically localized on one side of the head...unilaterally. Often accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light.
Similar to panic disorder...anxiety, palpitations, sweating, and trembling.

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