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Animal Health 4


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What are "core" vaccines?
Recommended for most pets in a particular area and include vaccines for:
1. Zoonotic diseases
2. High risk, highly virulent diseases that have serious consequences if contracted, and which are universally distributed within the U.S. or very common in our area
What are "non-core" vaccines
Reserved for pets with unique needs:
1. have a defined risk for a particular disease
2. Low risk diseases that have minimal consequences if contracted
3. Diseases that are regionally distributed but not common locally
4. Diseases that only manifest in particularly high population concentrations (i.e. shelters, breeding facilities, catteries)
What is kennel cough known as?
-Canine infectious tracheobronchitis
What three organisms cause kennel cough and what body system is affected?
-K-9 parainfluenza virus
-Bordatella bronchiseptica
+respiratory system
How long is the incubation period for kennel cough?
-4-10 days
What does Kennel Cough first attack in the body?
And then what?
-viral damage to upper respiratory mucosa
-secondary bacterial colonization
Is the uncomplicated or complicated kennel cough more common?
What are 5 clinical signs of uncomplicated kennel cough?
-most common
-sudden onset of cough
-honking +/- rhinitis
-BAR (?)
What are 4 clinical signs of complicated kennel cough?
-often in dogs with immunosuppressive or underlying airway disorders
-dyspnea (shortness of breath)
What are two common ways veterinarians diagnose kennel cough?
-clinical signs
-history of exposure
What therapy is given for kennel cough?
-often self-limiting
-if complicated: antibiotics, bronchodilators, steroids, antitussives (cough suppressor)
How can owners prevent kennel cough?
How can kennels reduce kennel cough (4)?
-lower population numbers
-maximize ventilation
-use disposable dishware or clean well
-routine disinfection of facility
What are 7 diseases we're covering in this section?
-Canine infectious tracheobronchitis (KC)
-Canine Parvoviral Enteritis
-Canine Coronaviral Enteritis
-Canine Distemper
-Infectious canine hepatitis
-Canine influenza virus
What is the etiology of Canine Parvoviral Enteritis (3)?
-most common cause of V/D (vomiting and diarhea) in dogs <1yr
-canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2)
-very resistant in environment (up to 5 months)
What are the 4 pathogenesis items of canine parvoviral enteritis?
-before 1970, unknown cause so all dogs were susceptible
-primarily through fecal/oral route
-subclinical/inapparent shedders (most common)
-intestinal and myocardial forms
*not sure about this card, I need to research virus more
What are two breed most susceptible to canine parvoviral enteritis?
-Doberman Pinscher
*all breeds can get it though, especially puppies between weaning and 6 months of age
What are 6 clinical signs of intestinal and myocardial forms of canine parvoviral enteritis?
-acute onset of fever
-Diarrhea (+/- blood, fetid odor)
Which form of canine parvoviral enteritis can cuase sudden death? What percentage does this?
-50% (some have heart failure first)
What are three ways of diagnosing canine parvoviral enteritis?
-clinical signs
-in-house virus detection kit
What is done in terms of treatment for canine parvoviral enteritis?
What is the bonus of surviving it?
-supportive care (monitoring, fluids, immune raising meds, etc)
-Survival leads to lifetime immunity
How can you prevent canine parvoviral enteritis (owner and kennel)?
-kennel management (isolate and disinfect)
What is the etiology of canine coronaviral enteritis?
-often found along with parvoviral enteritis
What are the 4 pathogenesis items?
-highly contagious
-spread via facal/oral route
-short incubation period (1-4 days)
-direct damage to small intestinal lining cells
What are 4 clinical signs of canine coronaviral enteritis?
*highly variable
-diarrhea most common (+/- blood, yellow/orange, no fetid odor)
How can you diagnose canine coronaviral enteritis (2)?
-virus isolation
How do you treat canine coronaviral enteritis?
-suportive care
How can you prevent canine coronaviral enteritis?
What is the etiology of canine distemper?
-CDV=canine distemper virus
-closely related to human measles & Bovine rinderpest viruses
-virus only survives in environment for very short time (<1 hr)
What is the pathogenesis of canine distemper?
-spread primarily through air (coughing, sneezing)
-abundant in respiratory exudates
-spread from respiratory epithelium to lymph nodes and to other lymphoid organs to many body tissues and organs
-virus shed for up to 90 days post infection
What can vary the signs of canine distemper?
-virulence of virus
-encironmental conditions
-age and immune status of host
What is the most common form of canine distemper?
-subclinical distemper (50-70%) which is due to proper immune response
What are 5 signs of the mild form of canine distemper?
-decreased appetite
-ocular discharge
-nasal discharge
What dogs are most affected by severe ungeneralized distemper?
-unvaccinated puppies 12-16 weeks of age
What are the signs/symptoms of severe ungeneralized canine distemper?
-+/- seizures
-possible death
How can you diagnose canine distemper?
-use clinical signs
-check vaccination status
-virus isolation
What type of therapy can be given for canine distemper? How can it be prevented?
What is the etiology of Infectious Canine Hepatitis?
-canine adenovirus 1 (CAV1)
What are (3) ways of pathogenesis?
-spread via fomites (can survive for months in environments
-excreted in urine
-oronasal exposure, then spread to other tissues and body secretions (saliva, urine, feces)
What dogs are most often seen with CAV1?
-dogs less than 1 year old
What are 10 signs of CAV1?
-abdominal pain
-edema of head, neck, and limbs
If sudden death doesn't occur with CAV1, when does recovery usually occur?
-in 5-7 days
How can you diagnose CAV1?
-clinical signs
-vaccination history
-laboratory (serology, virus isolation, immunofluorescence)
What therapy can be offered for CAV1? How about prevention?
-supportive care
What is the etiology of Rabies?
What are 5 points of pathogenesis?
-warm blooded animals
-wildlife reservoir (racoon, skink, fox)
-source almost always due to the bite of an infected animal
-spreads from wound to CNS by retrograde intra-axonal flow then peripherally in sensory & motor nerves
incubation period 3-8 weeks
What can affect the incubation period of the rhabdovirus (6)?
-age of subject
-degree of innervation to bite site
-distnce of bite site to CNS
-strain of virus
-amount of virus introduced
-post exposure treatment
What are 4 clinical signs of Rabies?
-widely variable
-prodromal phase
-"dumb" or paralytic stage
-"furious" stage
How can you diagnose Rabies?
-use clinical signs
-laboratory (fluorescent antibodies)
How long does the prodromal phase occur in rabies and what are the symptoms?
-2-3 days
-biting at bite site
How long does the dumb phase occur in rabies and what are the symptoms?
-2-4 days
How long does the furious phase occur in rabies and what are the symptoms?
-1-7 days
What are three clinical signs of rabies?
-developing sudden, profound changes in behavior
What is the public health significance of rabies?
How can it be prevented?
-transmissible to humans
-always fatal
What is the etiology of canine influenza virus?
-newly emerging canine virus, so no antibody resistance yet
-appears to be a variant of widespread equine influenza virus
What are two pathogenesis things of canine influenza virus?
-spread via aerodol, fomites
-usually found where groups of dogs congregate
What are 6 clinical signs of canine influenza virus?
-possible nasal discharge
*signs may be similar to kennel cough*
How can you diagnose canine influenza virus(3)?
-history and clinical signs
-virus isolation from early nasal swabs
-serology based on acute and convalescent titres
How can you treat canine influenza virus(3)?
-most infections are self limiting
-possible antibiotics
-possible antivirals (Tamiflu)

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