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Pathology Test I


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Normal cells are said to be in homeostasis, when a cell undergoes stress//increased demand what happens
What results if there is no adaptation
What are the 4 ways a Cell/Tissue can Adapt to Stress
1-Define Hyperplasia
2- What happens to the organ in hyperplasia
3- Hyperplasia can only occur in what tissues
-Is Hyperplasia Physiologic or Pathologic?
-Increase the # of cells
-Increases in Volume
-Tissues that are capable of cell division
Give an example of a Physiologic Hyperplasia Event
High Altitude= More RBC produced by Bone Marrow, Lactating Breast (Hormonal)
Define Labile
-Give an Example
Continuously replenishing cells
- Epidermis, GI
Give an Example of cells that are incapable of dividing
Neurons and Cardiac Myocyte cells
What cells can divide but will if NECESSARY!
-What is it called
Liver Cells (Hepatocytes)
-Compensatory Hyperplasia
How do you measure Proliferation?
Using Ki 67
This type of Hyperplasia occurs b/c of Infection or Invasion of Tissue
Follicular Hyperplasia
-Occurs in Lymph Node
Hypertrophy of muscles in bladder wall lead to this type of Hyperplasia
- what is the drug used to treat this and how does it work
Prostate Hyperplasia
-Anasterin- blocks mechanism and hypertrophy reverses itself
-- Mechanism: T is taken up by stromal cells>>Modified into TG>>GF>> Leads to Hypertrophy of Gland
What is Hypertrophy?
-How does this occur?
-Are these stem cells are mature cells
-What cause Hypertrophy
Increase in Size of Cells
-Increasing Cellular Components
-Mature Cells
-Increased Functional Demands
Name 3 tissues that undergoes Hypertrophy
Muscle Cells
- Increase Actin// Myosin
Liver Cells
-ER when metaboling drugs
Heart (Myocyte Cells)
-due to Peripheral resistance>> Hypertension
-this in Non Physiologic
- Physiologic in atheletes that work out (larger co>> lower hrt rate)
How do u get a Heart Attack
(Myocardial Infarct)
Decreased O or no O to heart (Anoxia)b/c of Obstruction of Blood Flow due to Athersclerosis>>Circumsized area of cell death
What can facilitate the Hypertrophic Response in Muscle cells
Anabolic Steroids
What animal is called the Champion of Mult. Hypertrophy
- Why
Belgain Blue
-Breed to produce less myostatin (prevents muscles from getting too big)
What is the cause of Calcific Aortic Stenosis
Narrowing of Aortic Valve>> Leads to Hypertrophy
Define Atrophy
-How does it occur
Loss of cell substance and/or cell #
-Imbalance between synthesis and degradation (via ubiquitination)
What 2 can things occur as a result of Atrophy
Autophagic vacuoles increas
Residual Bodies increase (process called lipofusion)
Residual bodies are a product of what?
lysis in lysosomes (when nothing else is left_
Name the 6 Categories of Atrophy
-Inadequate Nutrition
-Hormone Stimulation Loss
-Senile Atrophy
What are dense bodies made of
What is lipofusion
Accumulation of Autophagic Vacuoles
Senile Atrophy- give two examples
cerebral (alzheimer's disease)
What is Metaplasia
-what induces metaplasia
when one cell type changes to another cell type
Give and example of Metaplasia
-Squamous cells change to columnar cells (Barett's Esphogaus)

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