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MH III Essay 1


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Baroque Era, and what triggereed change?
(1600-1750) Bach Dies
Classical Era
Romantic Era
Baroque Era Characteristics
Major/Minor Tonalities
Bach introduced what to music?
Rapid Harmoni Motion, Counterpoint.
What is significant about every era?
Tends to be the reaction of the previous era.
Who leads us to the Romantic Period?
CPE Bach
What are the main characteristics of the romantic period
Individuality, and emotion
What is the basis of all chamber music
Large Sonata Form
What is Large Sonata Form?
4 movements.

1. (Fast) Sonata Allegro
2. (Slow) Theme and variations, Binary or ternary.
3. (18th Century) Minuet and trio, tripple meter. (19th Century) Scherzo and Trio, fast tripple meter.
4. Sonata Allego, Rondo (A-b-a-c-a-b-a), Choconne
What is Sonata Allegro Form
Intro (No Tunes)
Exposition (3 Tunes, Home Key and V Key)
Development (Motivic Modulation)
Recapitulation (3 tunes, all home key)
Series of repaeated notes
Series of repeated harmony
Large sonata without the third movement.
Cyclic Motion
repeating material from one movement in another.
Ivory Tower (1st Aesthetic)
19th century. No interest in style or fasion. 2 types of music: Piano or Serious (string quartet or symphonic) music and live off the royalties. Interested in self immortality, no patronage neccessary.
Patronage System
Catholic, protestand, and lutheran chucrches, Calvinistic branch, Aristocracy, and Govt.
First of the romantics who died for his music
Wrote for his own immortality
Nationalism (2nd Aesthetic)
Utilizing your culture to imprint your music. Folk tunes, folk melodies, ethnic materials.
Conflict Between words and music. (3rd Aesthetic)
Begins to disinigrate during the 19th century. Program music
Program Music
1.) descriptive-person, place, thing, event
2.) Philosophical starting point- Something stuns you and makes you want to create.
Timbre, and Tonal Language (4th aesthetic)
"Tone color"- Piano forte, valves for brass, String instruments change, woodwind fingerings change. Chromatacism, and tone center dissappears.
Creates a new bow for violin
Historicism (5th aesthetic)
The study of music of the past, Publishers allow this to happen.
Romantic Classicist Characteristics
Structured MElody, Homophonic Texture, Static Harmonic Motion, Put into structure-Large Sonata Form, Conservative.
Avante Guarde Characteristics
Interested in timbre/tone color and changing and expanding the harmonic language, Expanding on instruments, Make virtuosic playing an art form in itself.
Who are the post romantic composers who lead us into the 20th century
Strauss, Bruckner, and Mahler
Beethoven 3 Stylistic Periods
Envision by D'Indy, Immitation, Externalization, and Reflection
1. Immitation (Beethoven)
First Piece Op1, No1. Opus 18 String Quartet. First 2 Symphonies. 4 movements. More virtuosic, utilizes changes in instruments. Similar to Hayden or Mozart but more elaborate.
2. Externalization
Symphony 3-8, Emperor Concerto. Deeply romantic period. Utilizes large sonata in different ways. Virtuosit an element. Sonata form is expanded. Emotion, timbe, and tone color become important ot beethoven
3. Reflection
Utilized historicism, Moves away from difficult writing. More difficult Harmonically. 9th symphony. Opus 127-133 (Quartet)Motivic development and variation. Influenced by bach.
Murky Bass
Octave eight notes
(1809-1847)0 Lived rfrom mountain tops. Wealthy family, great education. Grandson of Moses MEndelssohn (Philosopher).Lived in berlin, big house, lots of aprties. University of Berlin with Hagel, Goethe. Huge repuatation, Heir to beethoven.
Mendelssohn instrumental works
Organ, Piano, Chamber, Orchestral, Symphnies. Structure based on large sonata forms. Progromatic overtures.
Vocal works
Oratorios: Elijah, St. Paul
Small scale vocal work
Large scale with arias and recitative. Not always liturgical, tells a story.
improviseed solo section
(1810-1849) (Romantic) Polish/French. Wrote only for piano. "Poet of Piano" Wrote character pieces
Character piece
Short keyboard piece expressing a mood or idea. (Romantic)
Bercuese (CP)
Songlike piece
Baladde (CP)
epic poem, longer bercuese
Etude (CP)
study piece
Prelude (CP)
Short Work
Impromptu (CP)
spontaneous, written improv
Fantasy (CP)
free and immaginative
Scherzo (CP)
Joke, Longer
Nocturne (CP)
night piece
Chopin dance pieces
Waltz- stylized dances. Polonaise and Muzurkes- Court dance
Stretching time
Inspired Liszt. thought to be without a soul, Great violin player, etc.
Inspired by paganini, generous with fortune, first to give solo recital, turned piano sideways.
Concert overture
Indepentent one movement work. Often Sonata form "1812 Overture" Tchaikovsky.
Incidental Music
music written to be played around acts of a play. Overture with 5-6 other pieces, Ex. Mendelssohns music for Am Midsummer Nights Dream.
Tone Poem, or Symphonic Poem.
One movement, long coplex, Free structure, Liszt Berloiz and Strauss, Les Preludes.
Hector Berloiz
French composer known for his program music.
Berlioz Symphony Fantastique
Program symphony composed for berlioz infatuation with women
Fixed Idea
melodic theme associated with a person or object.
RC Composers
Beethoven, Mendelssohn,
AG Composers
Paganini, Liszt, Chopin,
Liszt Traits
father of tone poem, piano composer, patron, you can play him you can play anythin "Virtuosity"

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