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eeb exam 1


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distinction of microparasite

(size, generation time, reproduction, life cycle, parasite load, duration of infection, and host immunity)
-short generation time
-reproduce inside host very rapidly
-simple life cycle, usually one host
-parasite load large
-duration of infection is short, but can be chronic
-host immunity strong, can be life long
characteristics of macroparasites
-size, generation time, reproduction, life cycle, parasite load, duration of infection, and host immunity
-relatively large/ often visible
-generation time is long
-reproduction is gen outside of host and slow
-life cycle is complex, gen multiple hosts
-duration of infection is long/often life long
-host immunity little/weak and transient
forms of transmission
horizontal: through direct contact sexually, through contact with fomites, airborne, waterborne

vertically: ovarial (from mother to offspring), milk, transplants, blood transfusion
protein parasite, composed of ~260 aa, causes diseases such as Kuru (laughing disease, transmitted in african tribes where ppl drink the dead's ear fluids), two forms R (rogue), and L (normal) protein.

can be transmitted three ways:
1. inherited
2. direct contact
3. spontaneous mutations

some diseases that it causes:
1. Jacob Crutzfeldt disease
2. Kuru (from drinking ear fluids of the dead in certain tribes)
3. BSE (bovine spongiform encephaly)/mad cow disease
4. Familial insomnia
5. chronic wasting disease

Disease cuased by Virus
UNUSUAL: wide range of mammalian hosts

-RNA virus
-targets CNS; alters host behavior
-symptoms include: agressiveness, fearlessness, hydrophobia, profuse salivation, eventual paralysis
-two forms: "dumb" and "aggressive"
Diseases caused by Bacteria
Bacillus anthracis (greek for coal)
causes Anthrax
transmission in three ways:
1. ingestion
2. inhalation
3. cutaneous

UNUSUAL: broad range of hosts! (cows, human, flies, etc)

-soil bacteria, spore former (can survive dessication)
Anthrax produces toxin that contains three components. what are they?
1. PA (protective antigen) attaches to select cell, and allow the EF and LF to enter cell
2. EF (edema factor) causes swelling and fluid buildup
3. LF (lethal factor) causes cell lysis

**antibodies can bind to PA and effectively stop the disease
Parasitic Protozoans
Ergotism (disease of important crops by parasitic fungi)
cause by: claviceps purpurea

-life cycle:
1. germinates in spring
2. ascospores formed in stomata
3. ascospores dispersed by wind
4. infect grain
5. fungi colonizes ovaries
6. infected florets exude honeydew (to promote transmission of disease)
7. in winter,

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