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Chpater 15 Personality


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An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Free association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.
The largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and future aspirations.
Psychosexual stages
The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus Complex
A boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred toward his father
The process by which, according to Freus, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superego
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleause seeking energies at an early psychosexual stage, where conflicts were resolved
Defense mechanisms
In Psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Defense mechanism in which and individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Reaction formation
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual of aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Projective Test
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.
Thematic Apperception test
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history
According to Maslow, The ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential
Unconditional positive regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “who am I”
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Personality Inventory
A questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
Empirically Derived Test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
Social-cognitive Perspective
views behaviors as influenced persons(and their thinking) and their socail context
Reciprocal Determinism
the interacting influenced between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
External locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one control one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation and animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversion events.
spotlight effect
overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we pressume a spotlight shines on us)
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favoorably
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Terror-management Theory
proposes that faith in one’s worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal huan functioning; aims to discover and promote strenghth and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

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