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Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1


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Who is Claude Bernard?
considered father of Physiology.
What is mileau interne?
internal environment
What is physiology? is it energetically costly?
the process of maintaining homeostasis (balance), yes it is energetically costly.
Who discovered homeostasis?
Walter Cannon
What is negative feedback?
minimize, diminish, product will feedback to inhibit earlier steps in the process.
What is positive feedback?
give some examples.
rare, maximize, speeds up steps in process, labor, precoital sex play, usually going for a set event
What is prokaryotic?
bacteria, cell wall and membrane and no nucleus
What is eukaryotic?
protozoa, plants, animals, nucleus, much more complex in terms of organelles
What are the four types of tissues?
nervous tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and epithelial tissue, blood also used to be considered a tissue
Describe connective tissues and what kinds there are.
bone, cartilage- cells spread out separated matrix in btwn. them, flexible,or tight, blood-cells are separated by serum (plasma), cartilage is not usually very vascular
Describe epithelial tissue.
arranged in sheets->skin, lining of tubes of the body, 2 sides- 1 side to the inside and 1 side to the external environment
What are the three major fluid compartments, how are they separated and what is their percent body weights?What makes up the extracellular body fluid?
separated by membranes
extracellular-plama and interstital
What is the total body weight percent of the body fluids? Intracellular and extracellular individually?
body fluids-70%
What are capillaries?
endothelial cells (w/membrane); separates blood plasma from interstitial fluid
What is the cell or plasma membrane?
separates interstitial fluid from intracellular
The membrane that separates the interstitial fluid and the intracellular fluid is made of what?
lipid bilayer, with hydrophobic tails and hydrophillic heads
what are millimoles?
1/1000th of a mole
What are osmoles?
concentration of particles dissociating from one mole. OsM
What is the usual unit of particles dissolving in a body?
milliosmoles- mOsM, 1/1000 osmoles
How many osmoles are most terrestrial animals?
300 mOsM
What are terrestrial animals with their surroudings? and what does this mean?
usually physiologically isotonic-meaning they can regulate their salt and water according to their surroundings
What does isotonic mean?
same tonicity (relative osmolarity), no net movement of water
What does hypertonic mean?
higher tonicity than reference solution,the cells will shrink and crenate, water leaves cells
What does hypotonic mean?
lower tonicity than reference solution, the cells will swell and burst, water enters cells
What is osmotic pressure?
the force that moves a solvent from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration through a selective permeable membrane
What is osmosis?
the movement of a solvent from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration
What is passive transport?
requires no energy for transport of getting things in and out of the cell
What is diffusion?
the movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from an area from high to low.
What is facillitated diffusion?
assisted diffusion without requiring energy
What is solvent drag and what transport does it belong to?
when there is a big movement of water it can drag things along with it..and is part of the passive transport
What is lipid solubility?
some compounds are soluble in lipids and not water..for ex. lipid soluble vitamins-A, D, E, K
What are pores and channels?
various pores and channels that open and let molecules through
What does semi-permeable mean?
means that particles will not diffuse
What is active transport?
energy used to get things in and out of the cell, and can move against the concentration gradient
What is endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis?
exocytosis-way to get things out of the cell,endocytosis -engulfs things,pinocytosis -cell drinking phagocytosis -engulf large things by wrapping in membrane
What are the types of passive transport?
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, solvent drag, lipid solubility, and pores and channels, and osmosis
What are the types of active transport?
endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, carrier mediated transport
What is carrier mediated transport?
requires energy to carry-shuttle across the membrane
What kind of liquid does the oral cavity have for making food soluble?
serous-saliva and water mixed
What is heterodonty?
different teeth
What are the types of teeth?
Incisors, canines, premolars and molars
What are baby teeth called?
What are Eustachian tubes?
two tubes that go to the middle ear and used to equalize pressure in the tympanic membrane.
Describe the esophagus.
inner circular smooth muscle, outer longitudinal smooth muscle. mouth to stomach, rough stratified squamous tissue
What is liquefaction?
gastric juice is added to the food to make a watery solution called chyme for when it leaves the stomach.
what does gastric juice, chief cells, parietal cells and mucuous cells produce?
gsatric juice produces fundus, chief cells produce- pepsin, parietal cells produce HCl, mucuous cells produce alkaline mucus
What are sphincters?
controls the entrance and exit of food. makes sure food doesn't reflux back into the esophagus.
What is the rumen?
can contain up to 40-50 gallons of material, sacculated with muscle pillars
What is the reticulum?
close to the diaphragm, honeycomb, hardware b/c this is where the hardware would drop out
What is the omasum?
many plies, many layers taking out water, absorbing water
What is the abomasum?
the true stomach that adds enzymes to the food
What are camelids?
they lack the omasum, 3 chamber stomach, pseudoruminants
What is the reticular espophogeal groove?
channel or groove from the esophagus down towards the reticulum and abomasum
What is the forestomach?
the rumen and reticulum
How many bacteria are in the rumen fluid?
10-50 billion per mL
Is the rumen aerobic or anaerobic and what types of VFA's does it contain?
anaerobic-lacks oxygen, acetic and butyric
What is the PH of the rumen and what happens if it drops?
6-7, if it drops to 5.5 then there are problems with the Protozoa which help break down carbohydrates
What are microbes?
synthesis of proteins from non-protein sources
What is produced when proteins are synthesized from nonproteins using nitrogen?
Describe the small intestines.
receives chyme from stomach and goes from pylorus to large intestines. Duodenum- has the pancreatic and bile ducts at the beginning of small intestines.
What are the sections of the small intestines?
duodenum and jejunum-second region of sm. intestines that is where most of the absorption takes place, ileum
What is the length of the small intestines?
3.5 x body length
What are the functions of the endocrine and exocrine parts of the pancreas?
endocrine-insulin and glycogen
exocrine-enzymes, and bicarbonate alkaline juice

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