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PSS 10: Roots and Stems


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What are two types of unusual roots?
-mycorrhizal associations
What occurs in nodulation of roots?
-symbiotic relationship with bacteria (rhizobium) fixes atmospheric nitrogen in certain legumes
What occurs in mycorrhizal associations?
-symbiotic relationship with fungi gives more water and mineral nutrient uptake
-the fungus gets CHO's in return
What are the functions of stems?
-conduct water and mineral nutrients from roots to leaves, flowers, and fruit
-leaf support (maximize photosynthesis)
-stores CHO's and water
What are the 5 components of stems?
From top to base, what are the buds found on stems?
-bud scale
-*terminal bud scale scar (line)
What are the pores found in stems?
Going from outside to inside, list the components of a mature stem (more detailed than important parts)
-cork cambium
What makes up the vascular bundle?
-phloem, cambium, and xylem
What is the bundle sheath?
-the surrounding cells of the primary phloem and xylem
What are some examples of specialized stems?
-thorns (but NOT prickles)
What are the components of corm?
-contractile root
-mother corm from previous year
-cormel (round things on base)
-daughter corm (large "bulb"
-dry leaf bases
How would you raise a cormel?
-In fall, separate the new corm and cormels from the parent and grow it!
What are some flowers from corm?
What are some flowers from bulbs?
-daffodils and narcissus
What is an example of a rhizome? What do people think this often is?
-ginger is thought of as a root, but it isn't!! It has nodes and shoots off from main stem
What are spurs?
What are stonlons?
-bunches of berries hanging from stem
-thick lines with no foliage such as strawberries and spider plants
Where can you find great thorns?
-Hawthorn berry bush
What are prickles?
-modified epidermal cells found on roses and brambles, but are NOT stems!
What is the most common form of a tuber?
What are the functions of leaves?
-sometimes storage
What are the components of a leaf?
-midrib (not all)
What are 4 leaf tips?
-acute (pointed)
-obtuse (rounded)
-truncate (blunt)
-emarginate (notched)
What are 6 bases?
-crenate (scalloped)
-serrate (fine tooth)
-dentate (toothed)
-undulate (wavy)
-spinose (spiny)
What are 2 lobing and 4 bases?
- shallowly and palmately
-cordate (heart-shaped)
-cuneate (wedge-shaped)
-acute (pointed)

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