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4-Urogenital Development


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What structures does intermediate mesoderm go on to form?
kidneys and gonads
What does the paraxial mesoderm form?
head and somites
Name the 3 divisions of the somite and what each is responsible for forming.
myotome-skeletal muscle
What are the 3 divisions of the lateral mesoderm?
splanchnic, somatic and extra-embryonic
What does the splanchnic mesoderm form?
circulatory system
Paired nephrotomes are paired segmentally and come from what regions? What mesoderm do they stem from?
cervical to sacral
intermediate mesoderm
Name the 3 types of kidneys formed during fetal development.
In what direction do the 3 kidneys develop?
When do the mesonephros start to differentiate?
when the pronephrons start to disappear
Which part(s) of the developing kidney produce urine?
mesonephros (some)
What does the mesonephric duct contribute to?
developing testis, male genital system and vestigial remnants in the female
How many functional mesonephric tubules are located on each side?
When do the metanephros appear?
5th week of fetal development
What does the metanephros form from?
bud that grows out of mesonephric duct, this bud grows into the surrounding mesoderm
Where is the metanephros able to produce urine?
weeks 11-13 of fetal development
When is the definitive architecture of the metanephros present?
week 10 of fetal development
Urine is produced early in development-why is this important?
provides component of amniotic fluid
What is the primary waste disposal system for the fetus?
What is polyhydramnios? What causes it?
excess amniotic fluid may be due to esophageal or duodenal atresia which prevents normal swallowing of amniotic fluid
What is oligohydramnios? What causes it?
shortage of amniotic fluid due to falure of the kidneys to develop or ruptured membranes
Name 5 functions of the amniotic fluid.
control of body temp
prevent adherence of amnion to embryo
permits symmetrical external growth of embryo
allows free movement of embryo
What is lung hypoplasia associated with?
What is the origin of the metanephros?
What does the metanephric blastema form from?
intermediate mesoderm
What 'sprout' from the mesonephric ducts?
ureteric buds
What surrounds the ureteric buds?
metanephric blastema
What does outgrowth of the ureteric bud form?
collecting tubules, calyces, and pelvis
What is the nephron derived from? collecting tubules?
nephron-metanephric blastem
collecting-ureteric bud
What causes the kidney to ascend?
differential growth
Is kidney development complete at birth?
No, nephron formation is complete, but elongation of segments and functional maturation occurs after birth
What is an ectopic kidney?
the kidney in an unusual site, ie pelvic kidney, often pancake shaped
What can occur w/ horseshoe kidneys?
their ascent is blocked by the IMA
What can cause a hydronephrotic kidney?
obstruction of the lower end of the ureter
Whith a pelvic kidney, where does the adrenal gland form?
in its normal position
How do ectopic ureters occur?
duplications of the ureteric bud
What does the epithelium of the bladder form from? What do other layers of the wall (ie SM) form from?
epithelium-urogenital sinus
others-splanchnopleuric mesenchyme
What divides the cloaca into a dorsal rectum and ventral urogenital sinus?
urorectal septum
The mesonephric ducts and attached ureteric buds are intercalated into the posterior wall of the bladder. What is this process called?
exstrophy (eversion of a hollow organ)
Initially the bladder is continuous with the allantois which goes on to form what? What is this stucture known as in the adult?
median umbilical ligament
Where is the bladder located in infants?
What are the major ducts of the gonads in females?
paramesonephric or Mullerian ducts
What are the major ducts of the gonads in males?
mesonephric ducts or Wolffian ducts
What do the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens differentiate from?
mesonephric system
What is the difference between a fistula and a sinus?
a fistula is an open tube a sinus is a blind tube (only open at one end)
What happens to the mesonephric ducts?
they are resorbed into the posterior bladder
What happens to the mesonephric ducts in females? males?
they degenerate
ejaculatory ducts
In females, what is the epithelium of the urethra formed from?
urogenital sinus
In males, what is the epithelium of the urethra formed from?
urogenital sinus except for the distal portion which is derived from the ectodermal glandular plate
What is the CT and SM of the urethra formed from?
splanchnopleuric mesenchyme
What is exstrophy of the bladder?
exposure and protrusion of the posterior wall of the bladder through the abdominal wall
What is it called when the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis? ventral surface?
What is the cortex of the adrenal gland formed from?
intermediate mesoderm
What is the medulla of the adrenal gland derived from?
neural crest
What is dehydroipiandrosterone produced by? What is it a precursor of?
What is the fetal adrenal cortex a part of?
the feto-materno-placental unit
What can congenital virilizing hyperplasia cause in females?
Describe how females can get masculization of their genitalia is there is a defect in glucocoricoids.
ACTH keeps increasing which stimulates the entire cortex of adrenal glands and get an increase in male hormones
What acts on the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands? What hormone is secreted?
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
What acts on the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands? What hormone is secreted?
glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgen
What acts on the zona reticularis? What hormone is secreted?
gluccocorticoids and androgen
What acts on the medulla of the adrenal gland? What hormone is secreted?
preganglionic fibers
epi and NE

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