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ch. 25 and 26 Industrialization


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Congress of Vienna
met to end the Napolien Era to confine French a Peach settlement GB, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France
restoration of Bourbon dynasty , France became bigger, used balance of power made the Congress system
Problems that arose
compromises for land Russia and Prussia Polish kingdom and Prussia took Saxony
Results of Congress of Vienna
established the congress system that met around Europe to settle crisis’s no major European war until 1914
free economy Adam Smith labor unions were harmful Universal male suffrage did not like mass democracy
Supporters of Liberalism
business groups middle class
cultural unity into political reality liberals thought it was good gov’t nations had right to exist in freedom
radical changes mass democracy universal male suffrage sweeping changes
Supporters of radicalism
working class
Reasons for decline
working class unions wages inc. they were apart of the system
French Utopian Socialism
economic planning gov’t to organize econ like when they made price of bread constant and to own land socialism started in France and upheld by Saint Simon wanted industrialists to guide economy and Fourier
Marxian Socialism
Communist Manifesto sexual freedom class exploitation
economical equality no body should own anything state plans and regulates economy
Revolutions Greece 1827
National Liberation from the Turks w/ VICTORY due to 3 major powers against Turkey Austria was apposed
Reform in Great Britain 1846
Corn Laws were devastating and the repeal of the Corn Laws to put back grain Reform Bill of 1832 VICTORY but not in Ireland less work hours
France Liberal Revolution 1830
small suffrage even w/ Constitutional Charter Charles restricted speech “3 glorious days” brought the gov’t down VICTORY
French Liberal Revolution 1948
Louis Philipe came to power and but enacted little reform clash between socialism and capitalism and moderists and radicals brought down gov’t Loius Napolean became an authoritarian by vote FAILURE
Austria Nationalism 1948
Austria was split up by many cultures and Hungary wanted universal suffrage and ended serfdom revolution was brought down by the empire FAILURE
Prussia Liberal Reform 1850
unification of the German states Russia and Austria forced Prussia to give up the German Cofederation was reestablished FAILURE
Dual Revolution
economic and political revolution side by side
German Unification Bismarck
Bismarck who was chief minister did not obey Parliament controlled army and foreign affairs unified N German states under King of Prussia of a Confederation but took war w/ France to unify all of the German states Gave Frederick William absolutist power Germany became the strongest power enacted social reforms
Hegel: history had a patter and purpose built his economic ideas from Ricardo the proletariat will conquer Bourgeoisie w/ violent revolution
Kaiser Wilheim
emperor of Germany and king of Prussia
Frankfurt Assembly 1948
Prussian liberals made Frederick William grant a constitutional monarchy and be emperor but Austria and Russia made them to stop unification of Germany
“Blood and Iron”
The struggle (1871–1883) between the Roman Catholic Church and the German government under Bismarck for control over school and ecclesiastical appointments and civil marriage
A usually expansionist national policy having as its sole principle advancement of the national interest.
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
leadership by Emannuel and Cavour and the nationalist favor to unify Italy
leader of Sardinia who led a liberal constitutional Sardinia w/ highways and railroads and civil liberties ended up to unify Italy
wanted a republic who preached a centralized democracy and universal suffrage and will of the people spurred movement
Victor Emmanuel II
was leader of Piedmont and he wanted to unify Italy too got Venice and Rome
got Southern Italy Italian general and nationalist who led 1,000 volunteers in the capture of Sicily and Naples (1860). His conquest led to the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861).
Constitutional gov’t of Italy
under Victor Emmanuel small suffrage and north was industrial while south was agrarian politically divided
Loius Pasteur
Germ theory of disease. Created method to observe fermentation and avoid spoilage. Specific diseases are caused by specific bacteria and is therefore controllable. Pasteurization.
Charles Darwin
Chance differences among the members of a given species help some survive while others die. Natural selection, Survival of the fittest. Became racial
o Sigmund Freud
Psychology. Psycholanalytic perspective. Dream analysis.
o Social Darwinism
Poor are ill-fated weak, prosperous the chosen strong and should rule that way.
o Romanticism
Revolt against Enlightenment. Emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, spontaneity. Individualism. Chopin, Beethoven. Concept of nature.
o Realism
Science, psychology, philosophy. How/why things work. Chemistry, Darwinism, Technology.
o Impressionism
Like surrealism, very individualistic.

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