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Human Geography 2nd half


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the policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
a part of the greater Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing conflict between Israel and Palestinians. In both communities, some individuals and groups advocate total territorial removal of the other community, some advocate a two-state solution, and some advocate a binational solution of a single secular state encompassing present-day Israel, the Gaza strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem.
After the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, Lebanon became home to more than 110,000 Palestinian refugees who had fled from Israel and During the early 1970s difficulties arose over the increase of Palestinian refugees in the south, and full-scale civil war broke out in April 1975, leaving the nation with no effective central government. This period saw the rise of radicalism among the country's factions, and a number of landmark terrorist attacks against American forces. The country is recovering from the effects of the war, with foreign investment and tourism on the rise.
mackinder, Halford J
.- English geographer who believed that the major powers would be those that controlled the land, not the seas. This is the heartland theory.
manifest destiny
a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States had a divinely inspired mission to expand, spreading its form of democracy and freedom towards the Pacific Ocean.
median-line principle
- important base for demarcating a border. When a line is drawn such that every point on the line is equal in distance to the nearest points on the baselines of the opposite or adjacent coastal states.
national iconography
- images or symbols that reflect a national heritage and merit emblems for a people
The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is the largest Aboriginal land claim settlement in Canadian history. When the Agreement was signed, legislation was also passed leading to the creation of a new territory called Nunavut on April 1, 1999. The new territory will have a public government serving both Inuit and non-Inuit.
raison d'etre
A basic, essential purpose; a reason to exist. The driving forces behind the existence of states or the desire for national autonomy
in political geography, group- frequently ethnic group- identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
religious conflict
- A disagreement involving differences in religion or religious beliefs between 2 countries, ethnic groups or organizations.
To become unified or whole again after being divided.
satellite state
a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power
shatter belt
A region caught between stronger colliding external cultural- political forces under persistent stress and often fragmented by aggressive rivals.
- is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (legislative, judicial and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people or oneself.
stateless ethnic group
people of similar origin, background or culture who do not have a state
stateless nation
a people without a state
- is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right
a pattern of behavior and attitudes held by an individual or group that is based on perceived, attempted, or actual control of a definable physical space, object, or idea that may involve habitual occupation, defense, personalization, and marking of it.
a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role
treaty ports
port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the so-called Unequal Treaties, i.e. imposed by imperialist naval powers on militarily helpless Asian states.
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
A code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles (22 km) from shore and 200 nautical miles wide (370 km wide) exclusive economic zones.
unitary state
a state in which the central government dictates the degree of local or regional autonomy and the nature of local governmental units; a country with few cultural conflicts and with a strong sense of national identity
USSR Collapse
Collapsed in 1991. Before this, it had the largest centrally directed economy in the world. It was composed of many republics.
women's enfranchisement
The 19th Amendment not only gave women the right to enfranchisement in all elections, and thus a say in government, it also legitimized women's participation in all areas of society.
Landlocked state
a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
law of the sea
law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
a state or territory that is small in both population and area
tightly knit group of individduals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion and other cultural attributes
a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
perforated state
a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
prorupted state
a state that exhibits a narrow elongated land extention leading away from teh main territory
the process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories
self determination
the right of a nation to govern itself autonomously
a politically organized territory that is administeredd by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community
supranational organization
organization of 3 or more states to promote shared objectives
territorial dispute
any dispte over land ownership
compact state
a state that possesses a roughtly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
elongated state
a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
fragmented state
a state that is not a continuous whole but rather separated parts

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