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Art 361 Study Guide for Test 1


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What was the function of Venus of Willendorf?
It's a fertility figure. She was prayed to for offspring.
Where and when were the first stone fortifications built?
During the Neolithic age, people began to settle and trade. Towns needed to be fortified. The first fortified city was in Jericho, Jordan?
The absence of streets at Catal Hayuk provided what advantage?
The town was defensively planned so that only one room could be invaded at a time. People had to walk on roofs.
What do we believe to have been the purpose of Stonehenge?
It's an ancient observatory.
In which period was the Venus of Willendorf carved?
In which period were Jericho and Catal Hayuk founded?
On the Tel Asmar figures, what is the meaning of the exaggerated eyes?
It shows awe toward their god, Abu.
Compare the Tel Asmar figures with the Standard of Ur. Which depicts ethnic Sumerians and why?
The Tel Asmar statuettes depict Sumerians who wore beards and were not ethnically pure. This indicates that another group of people is coming into Mesopotamia.
What is a cella?
The rectangular, central room of a ziggurat. The entrance is on the long side of the building.
Which piece exemplifies historical narrative?
Bull-headed Lyre, Ur
On the War Side, they describe an actual military event.
Victory of Stele of Naram-Sin, Susa
Commemorates Akkadian victory that took place on a hillside.
Who was Hammurabi?
The ruler of the city-state Babylon. Created code of laws.
Describe the Warka Vase.
(3000 BC) Comes from Warka, another name for Uruk. It is made of alabaster. Libation is given to the gods in this vase. Each level of carving on the vase is a frieze. It depicts water, barley, sheep, humans carrying votive offerings. Humans have profile heads and frontal eyes -- twisted perspective. The top frieze shows the shrine room in the temple.
Describe the Lion Gate at Boghazkoy.
Belonged to the Hittites, who were from Turkey. They overtook the Babylonias. This is a fortification gate through the fortification wall. The wall shows cyclopian masonry, and the gate has post-and-lentil construction. The lions were originaly painted. The lion gates catches on: every civilization adopts the guardian figure. (1400 BC) It was a means of intimidation.
What is a stele?
A carved slab of stone that tells a story.
Describe the Stele of Vultures.
(2600 BC, Syria) The left-hand image shows how the Sumerians went to battle. It is a statement about the strength of the Sumerian army. Then, vultures come in and carry heads away to eat them. Steles were put on public display. They were meant to intimidate visitors.

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