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Intro and Sagittal Brain


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brain and spinal chord develop embryologically from what type of structure
proencephelon consists of
telencephelon (top)
diencephelon (below)
below the diencephelon is the ______
below the mesencephelon is the ______ which consists of ______ & _______
rhombencephelon consists of metencephelon (superior) & myencephelon
below the myencephelon is the _________
spinal chord
rostral means
towards snout
caudal mans
towards tail
the brainstem consists of (inferior to superior)
medula, pons, midbrain
The prominent posterior (dorsal) part of the midbrain is the
The 4th ventricle
overlies the pons and rostral 1/2 of the medulla
The cerebral aqueduct passes through
the midbrain
Cerebellum overlies
the 4th ventricle
-just rostral to midbrain
-at the core of the cerebral hemisphere
3 parts of the diencephelon
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
The thalami are usually
connected across the midline by a mass intermedia
3rd ventricle
lies between the thalami and surrounds the massa intermedia
Anterior wall of 3rd ventricle (lamina terminalis) includes
anterior commissure
Components of epithalamus
pineal gland and posterior commissure
Parts of the hypothalamus include
mammillary bodies & pituitary stalk
A major landmark just rostral and inferior to hypothalamus
is optic chiasm
A large white matter tract arching over the thalamus is
the body of the fornix
Underlying the gray matter is the largest white matter structure
corpus callosum
Stretching between the corpus callosum and fornix is a thin semitransparent membrane which separates the left & right lateral ventricles
septum pellucidum
Four of the brain lobes can be seen in mid-sagittal section
The epithalamus
not an integrated funtional unit, but has structures which function in several systems
Pineal gland
-a small gland floating in CSF between midbrain & corpus callosum
-It is attached to the brain by a stalk with dorsal and ventral walls
- The 3rd ventricle extends up into the stalk
On the dorsomedial thalamus is a bump (habenula) overlying the ________
habenular nucleus
Arching over the dorsomedial thalamus is the
stria medullaris thalami
The _______ is in the dorsal wall of the pineal stalk
habenular commissure
Stria medullaris thalami arches over the
dorsomedial thalamus
Stria medullaris thalami
is a complex afferent fiber bundle to the habenula
Habenular commissure probably includes both
commissural and decussating fibers
The pineal gland projects into
a large subarachnoid space
Because it develops calcifications ("brain sand"), at one time it proved instrumental as a landmark to plane film radiologists. These calcifications are also visable on CT.
pineal body
Pineal tumor compresses what?
What symptoms will it cause?
the midbrain tectum (rostral part is visual system) which in turn compresses (closes) the cerebral aqueduct.

Produces simultaneous symptoms of hydrocephalus (increased CSF pressure) and eye movement disorders
Posterior commissure
- attaches between the ventral wall of the pineal stalk and the midbrain tectum near the junction of the 3rd ventricle and cerebral aqueduct

- Fibers interconnect various nuclei involved in the visual system
PC fibers interconnect
midbrain nuclei involved in the visual system

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