# Math for Meds 2

## Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
__
aa
of each
a.c.
before meals
as desired
b.i.d.
two times a day
_
c
with
cap
capsule
dil.
dilute
elix.
elixir
ext
extract
fld.
fluid
gtt
drop
h, hr
hour
h.s.
at bedtime
IM
intramuscular
IV
intravenous
NS (N/S)
normal saline
os
mouth
_
p
after
p.c.
after meals
per
by
p.o.; per os
by mouth
p.r.n.
when necessary/required
q
every
q.a.m.
every morning
q.d.
every day
q.h.
every hour
q.2.h.
every 2 hours
q.h.s.
every night at bedtime
q.i.d.
four times a day
q.o.d.
every other day
_
s
without
__
ss
one half
soln.
solution
stat.
at once, immediately
supp
suppository
susp.
suspension
syp.
syrup
tab.
tablet
t.i.d.
three times a day
tr. or tinct.
tincture
ung
ointment
1oz
30 mL
1/2 oz
15 mL
1 L
1000 mL
1cc
1 mL
1 T
15 mL
1 mg
1000 mcg
1 gr
60 mg
1/150 gr
0.4 mg
1/200 gr
0.3 mg
metric system of measurement
system of weight and measures used in medicine
International units
measures a drug in terms of action, not as a weight
percentage measures
% represents the number of grams of a drug per 100mL of solution
milliequivalents
indicates stregth or potency of a drug
1906
pure food and drug act
Government set standards for drug quality and purity
Controlled substances act of 1970
five schedules are divided based on potential for abuse, and physical and psychological dependence.
Pharmacology
three basic areas of pharmacology are
1. pharmaceutics
2. pharmacokinetics
3. pharmacodynamics
Pharmaceutics
includes preparation of drugs and drug forms
Enteral
oral...ingested..
tablets, capsules, elixirs, lozenges, syrups
pharmacolinetics is the study of
how drugs enter the body
reach their site of action
metabolized and exit the body
pharmacokinetics processes
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excretion
Absorption
rate at which drug leaves site of amdinistration and the passage of drug molecules into the blood
Factors that influence rate of drug absorption
ability of drug to dissolve
conditions at the site of absorption
bioavailability-% of drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
enteral
parenteral
topical
distribution process
transport of a drug in the body by the bloodstream to its site of action
Distribution of drug depends on
protein binding
blood flow
body tissue availability
Metabolism (pharmacolinetics proccesses)
biotransformation of a drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound, or a more potent metabolite
what tissues and organs aid in metabolism of drugs
liver, kidney, lungs, plasma, and intestinal mucosa
Excretion in pharmacokinetics
elimination of drugs from the body
Routes: kidney, liver, bowel, sweat, saliva, mammary glands
parenteral
iv...sub q...im
solutions, powdres for reconstitution, given by injection
topical
ointments, creams, gels, transdermal patches, sublingual, buccal
half life (t 1/2)
time it takes for 1/2 of the drug concentration to be eliminated.
onset
time it takes to reach the minimum therapeutic concentration after a drug is given
peak
drug reaches its highest blood or plasma consentration (max. therapeutic effect)
duration
length of time the drug has a pharmacological effect== how long the drug has a therapeutic effect
pharmacodynamics
mechanism of action
primary effect of the drug
desirable effect
secondary effect of the drug
can be desirable or undesirable
theapeutic effect of the drug
goal of drug therapy
agonists
drug that produce or promote a response
antagonist
drugs that prevent a response
nonspecific interactions
drug acts by physically interfering with or chemically altering cellular process
pharmacotherapeutics
use of drugs to treat or prevent disease
individual response to drugs
factors to consider
age, gender, genetics, weight, height.
prescriptions are written by
physicians, dentists, vets, LNP's, PA's
Look drugs up under?
generic names
drug names
chemical name
generic name
drug classification
medication distribution systems
stock medications
unit dose systems
computer controlled dispensing systems
right client
right drug
right dose
right time
right route
right documentation
to avoid drug errors
real lable 3 times
1. when taking drug from dispenser
2. when checking drug agains the med record
3. before administration or before opening the unit dose package.
types of medication orders
standing orders
PRN orders
single/one time orders
STAT orders
name given by the pharaceutical company that manufactured the drug
generic name
chemical name of drug
drug strenght
identifies the dosage of the drug in the form dispensed in the container
drug form
type of preparation of drug as prepared by manufacturer
interpretation of medication labels
route
ammount
exp date
lot number
ndn number
manufacturers name
administation of drugs requires nursing process..
assessment
diagnosis
planning
implementation
evaluation

97