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Biology Chapter 27-29 flashcards for Exam 1


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Levels of organization within an organism
Organ System
Name the 4 major types of tissue and give examples of each
Epithelial- Lines body cavities, covers the body and organs, forms glands ex. skin
Connective- loose (dermis), fibrous (tendons & ligaments), and specialized (bones, blood, fat)
Muscle- skeletal (voluntary), smooth (intestines), and cardiac (contracts and stimulates involuntarily)
Nerve- neurons and glial cells
body's way of leveling out.
Compare open vs. closed systems
Open has no vessels and is free flowing (insects)
Closed is in vessels and a heart to pump (us)
What are the functions of the circulatory system?
1) nutrients delivered
2) hormones distributed
3) waste products removed
4) 0xy and CO exchange
5) temp control
6) control of blood loss
7) defense & immunity
Compare 2,3, and 4 chambered hearts
2 chambers- an atrium empties into a single ventricle (fish)
3 chambers-deoxy blood is delivered to the right atrium and oxy blood travels into left atrium and empties in a single ventricle (amphibians)
4 chambers- ensures blood reaching tissues has highest possible oxy content (mammals and birds)
Why is the double circulatory pathway the most efficient?
b/c it goes through the heart twice
The heartbeat
initaited by the SA node, spreads to the AV node, then thru the ventricles
What regulates the heart rate
1) nervous system (stress)
2) endocrine system (releases adrenaline)
3) musculo skeleatl system (exercise)
What is a heart murmur?
its a defective valve that allows for some blood to go back thru
consists of plasma (55%)and cellular components (45%)
What is the difference b/w plasma and serum?
plasma is the fluid before blood clotts and serum is whats after it clotts
What substances are dissolved in and transported by the plasma?
anitcoagulants, proteins, water, hormones, nutrients, gases, salts, and wastes
All blood and platelets are produced in the ________ and released into the ___________.
bone marrow
RBC- flexible concave disks to fit through capillaries, nucleus isnt present in mature cells
Normal count 4 to 5 million/ml of blood
What are some causes and types of anemia?
too few RBCs
too little hemoglobin
abnormal cells

Polycythemia- too many RBCs can't circulate blood as well cuz its too thick
fives types of white blood cells
normal count 5-10,000/ml of blood
5 types of WBCs
Which type of WBC are most common in your bloodstream?
Which two types can carry out phagocytosis?
monocyte and neutrophils
What causes elevated WBC levels?
an infection, cardiac arrest, labor and delivery, leukiemia but they dont function
fragments of cytoplasm pinched off from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Platelets are very sticky and adhere to damaged tissue, they accumulate at the sites of injury, and secrete chemical signals to intiate clotting reaction.
What is fibrin?
an enzyme that clots by forming a web
How does clotting occur?
1) break in vessel wall
2) blood escaping thru break, vessel constricts
3) platelets adhere to e/o to end of broken vessels and to exposed collagen-send out chemical signals
4) platelet plug helps control blood loss chemical in plasma called fibrinogen (inactive) turns into fibrin when prothrombrin (inactive) activates thrombrin.
carry blood away from the heart, generally carry oxygenated blood (except pulmonary) arteries branch into arterioles, designed to handle blood under pressure from the heart
return blood to the heart, they generally carry deoxygenated blood (pulmonary vein carries oxy), veins branch into venules, have flexible walls and one-way valves to allow blood flow in one direction only. they must be "massaged" by surronding muscles to facilitate return of blood to the heart
small, thin-walled, highly-branched vessels, they are sites of exchange b/w blood and body tissues. they are small and numerous to slow down the flow of blood, they are thin-walled to allow for diffusion
What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
reduce blood flow to fingers and face to conserve heat or opposite
How can the flow of blood be regulated by arterioles? by capillaries?
it is very muscular in order to contract and relax, smooth muscle responds to signals and constrict (less blood flow)
in capillaries there are tiny rings of smooth muscle called precapillary sphincters that open/close in response to local changes
What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system?
1)return excess fluid and dissolved substances that leak from cap to bloodstream
2) transport fats from the small intestine to the bloodstream
3) defend the body by exposing bacteria and viruses to white blood cells
What structures are involved in the lymphatic system?
lymph capillaries and vessels
lymph nodes
thymus and spleen
What are all the functions of the respiratory system?
Breathing and respiration
Compare 'breathing respiration' and 'cell respiration'
both gain 0xy and get rid of CO, breathing you inhale and exhale
Why do we need to breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide?
every cell in our body needs to expend energy from oxygen and release it
What are the conditions which encourage rapid diffusion for exchange of gases?
1) surface area is large
2) a layer of water covers the surface
3)the distance for diffusion is short
4) the gradient is very steep
How much oxygen is present in the air we breathe?
Which gas is the most abundant in the air?
directs food down, covers the trachea
contract- lungs expand relaxes
relax- lungs contract
seperates chest and stomach, all around the ribs
gas exchange
2 branches of trachia split into two lungs
dead end of the bronchioles, hollow, 300 million
Pleural sacs
around the lungs, helps protect lungs and reduces friction
Why is the trachea reinforced with rings of cartilage?
b/c its not allowed to collapse, need to be clear
Why must the inside of alveoli be lined with water?
need water for diffusion
Why is each alveolus surronded by capillaries?
so they can diffuse easier
Why is hemoglobin such a "magical" molecule?
Know when to "let go" of oxygen in the places the body needs it
What affects the uptake and release of oxy by hemoglobin?
how much oxygen is needed
Which binds more readily to hemoglobin: oxygen or carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
Why is this important?
attatches to hemoglobin and wont let go and it can't transport oxy and CO
What factors control your respiration rate?
exercise, smoking, sleeping, drugs, gender, body size, age, stress
How is CO removed from the blood?
1) bond with hemoglobin
2) dissolve in plasma
3) HCO3 as a carbonate (gradient removes steep when disguised)
What are the effects of smoking
cilia get paralyzed and don't work, alveoli get hard and can't work
What is emphysema?
ruptured alveoli
What is black lung?
breathing in soot and covering alveoli
lungs fill with mucus

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