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Chapter 3: Cells:The Living Units


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He was the first to observe plant cells in a microscope
Robert Hooke
_ and _ proposed that all living thins were composed of cells
Schleiden and Schwann
_ suggested that cells arise only from other celles
Name the 4 concepts of the cell theory
1. cell is basic functioning unit of all living things
2. organism activy dependent on individual and collective activitis of cells
3. Principle of Complentarity-activities of cells made possible by subcellular structures
4. cellular activity needed to continue life
All cells have 3 major parts
nucleus, cytoplasm and plama membrane
Boundary of cell, phospolipid
bilayer, globular proteins embedded in bilayer and acct for 50% of membrane mass.
Plasma Membrane
Waht is not a role of protein in the plasma membrane?
Permeability of a cell is determines by what 4 factors?
1. solubility in lipids (fat)
2. size small lipid insoluble substances like water and some ions can pass
3. electrical charge-must be opposite charge of membrane
4. carrier system-is it being carried in and by what
Finger like projections found on the surface of the membrane. Found on absorptive cells like kidney tubules and intestinal cells.
_ junctions fuse together to prevent free passage of molecules through intercellular space between cells.
_ junctions anchor membranes together. They are found in tissues subjected to mechanical stress Ex. skin, heart, mucles
_ juntions connect cells with hollow cylinders. Allows passage of sugars, ions and other small molecules. found in electically excitable tissues ex. heart, mucles
What serves as a cell marker to distinguish how cells are identified?
Substances penetrate the membrane by way of diffusion or _ processes; molecules move from a high concentration to a low concentration
Passive Proceses
Solute pumping or _ transport Requires ATP and a carrier protein to move substances in/out of the membrane
Active Transport
_ transport requires ATP to move large particles through the plasma membrane.
Bulk Transport
The type of bulk transport tht moves substances out of the cell.
The type of bulk transport that allows large particles to move into the cell
Endocytosis process that allows a large particle to be ingested.
Endocytosis process that allows a particle dissolved in water to be digested.
Cellular material inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus. Contents consist of cytosol and organelles.
Powerhouse. provides most of the ATP energy for the cell. Has inward folds of cristae were gluclose is broken down to form ATP
What 2 things are released when gluclose is broken down to ATP?
water and carbon dioxide
The site of protein synthesis. Composed of proteins and a tyoe of RNA.
continuous with the nuclear memebrane. Has enclosed cavities called cisternae. Comes in 2 types.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Studded with ribosomes. Produces transport vesicles containing proteins migrating to the Golgi apparatus.
Rough ER
Plays no role in protein synthesis. involved in lipid metabolism. continuation of rough ER
Smooth ER
Prioncipal traffic director for cellular proteins. Job is to modify, concentrate, and package proteins for export.
Golgi Apparatus
Where digestion occurs within the cell.
Bones and muscles of the cell helping to suport intercellular structures and provide cell movement.
Cytoskeletal elements
Thin strands of actin. Involved in cell motility or cell shape change.
Tough protein fibers with high tenstile strength. Resists puling forces of the cell
Intermediate filaments
Overall organizers of the cytoskeleton. Positions and suspends organells at specific locations within the cell. Forms the walls of centrioles
Move substances in one direction across cell surfaces.
Propel the cell. Only found in sperms cells in humans.
Control center for the cell. All cells have one EXCEPT red blood cels. Largest organelle in the cell.
Phospholipid bilayer surrounding the nucleus. Outer layer continuous with the ER. Larger pores located throughout.
Nuclear Membrane
Dark spherical bodies found in the nucleus. Function as ribosome producing machines.
Composed of DNA and histone. When condensed they form chromosome.

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