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Chem. Ch 1


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Chemistry studies what?
The study of the composition of substances and the way by which their properties are related to their compositions.
Steps of scientific method?
observation, explanation, testing of explannation by experiments
physical property
property observed without changeing the chemical makeup of a substance (color)
chemical property
describes a chemical change/reaction that a substance undergoes (rusting)
physical change
change in substance but not in chemical makeup (melting ice)
chemical reaction
ineraction of chemicals that form different substances with different properties. (rusting iron)
extensive property
property that depends on sample size (volume)
intensive property
any property that does not depend on sample size (color, melting point)
3 states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
chemical changes from one substance to 2 or more
substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler materials by chemical reactions
# of elements
2 or more elements combined fixed proportions (water CO2)
pure substances
compositions with fixed proportions (elements and compounds)
mixture that have variable compositions
2 kinds of mixtures
homogeneous and heterogeneous
homogeneous mixture
a mixture with 1 phase or with similar properties throughout
heterogeneous mixture
mixture with 2 or more phase and disimilar properties
law of conservation of mass
through chemical reactions mass is same or conserved
law of definite proportions
elements in compounds are always combined in the same
law of multiple proportions
in 2 elements that form a compound the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole #s (3/2)
atoms with slightly different masses they differ in the 3 of neutrons
subatomic particles
protons, neutrons, and electrons
atomic number
is the # of protons,

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