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Mental Health- Theories (HS)


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What are the 3 personality components according to Freud?
id - seeks gratification
superego- the moral side
ego- the balance between the two.
Define preconscious, subconscious, conscious, and unconscious
pre- thoughts that are not currently in personls awareness but are accessible.

con- awareness

un- thoughts that motivate, even though the person is unaware of them. Defense mechanisms are unconscious.

Sub- "freudian slip".
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
oral - birth to 18mos
Anal-- 18-36 mos
Phallic-- 3-5 yrs
Latency -- 5-11 yrs
Genital-- 11-13 yrs
a defense mechanism. Venting of intense feelings toward persons less threatening. For example an angry man has a bad day at work and comes home and kicks the dog.
Regression vs. Repression vs. Suppression
Regression is Moving back to a previous developmental stage in order to feel safe or have needs met. Repression is having no memory of painful things. Suppression is CONSCIOUS exclusion of painful thoughts and feelings.
Jean Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor- 0-2 yrs: begins to form mental images.
Preoporational- 2-6 yrs: language and symbols
Concrete operations- 6-12 yrs: logic thiking begins. spatiality and reversibility are understood. child becomes more social and can understand rules. thinking is still concrete!
formal operations- 12-16: abstract thinking. logical thinking and reasoning.
What are the two humanistic theories?
Maslow- hiearchy of needs
Carl Rogers- Client centered therapy

Humanism direct most attention toward future and present. focus on strength and potential of client.
What are the two behavioral theories?
Pavlov- dogs conditioned response

Skinner- Behavior modification through positive and negative conditioning. (operant conditioning)
What are the four existential theories?

Frankl- logotherapy. you are searching for the meaning of life. Nazi camps.

Perls- Gestalt therapy. Focuses on the hear and now. may encourage journals, letters.

Glasser- Reality therapy. Taking responsibility for your life and actions.
Discuss the 2 interpersonal theories.
Sullivan- interactions are very important. Milleu therapy (groups, interacting with others, helping one another)The therapist is the PARTICIPANT OBSERVER.

Peplau- developed phases of nurse, client relationship, defined the role of the nurse in the therapeutic relationship, described four levels of anxiety.
what are the phases of the nurse/pt relationship according to peplau?
orientation- trust is built, questions are answered, problem is introduced

ID- patient feels stronger, feelings are expressed

exploitation- pt. ismaking the most of the services. Pt's behavior fluctuates between dependence and interdependence.

Resolution- termination.
What are the 6 roles of the psyc. nurse according to Peplau?
stranger- offering the same acceptance and treatment as a stranger.

resource- specific questions are answered in a broad sense

teacher- helps the client learn

leader- offering direction

surrogate- serving as a substitute (for example playing someone during roleplay)

counselor- self explanatory
What are the four levels of anxiety according to peplau?
mild anxiety- can be helpful. perceptual field is not disturbed.

moderate anxiety- perceptual field decreases. the person focuses on immediate task only. person needs assistance with new task and new learning.

severe anxiety- feelings of dread or terror. chest pain-person may believe they are having a heart attack.

panic anxiety- loss of rational thought, delusions. the person is at risk for injury here because they may just start bolting.
Existential and interpersonal theories are_____ theories.

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