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anat pardee 1


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Serous membranes
connective tissue lined with squamous epithelium lining cavities and covering many organs; transudate (fluid) moves through membrane to potential space between cavity wall and organ to prevent friction and abrasion to organs.
. Pericardium
parietal pericardium lines pericardial sack and visceral pericardium (aka epicardium) covers the heart
: parietal pericardium
Line pericardial sack
Visceral Pericardiam (aka epicardium)
covers the heart
Pleura: parietal pleura
lines lung cavities
visceral pleura
covers the lung
.Peritoneum: parietal peritoneum
lines abdominopelvic cavity
Peritoneum: visceral peritoneum
covers abdominopelvic organs
reference terms; terms are relative to a designated reference point
Superior (supra)
What is its oppopiste?
means above another structure
Inferior (infra)
below another structure
Lateral means to the side whereas medial means towards the midline of the body
towards the front
towards the back
refers to the end of a structure (i.e. an appendage) which is closer to a reference point (perhaps the midline of the body) Opposite-Distal
refers to the end of a structure farther away from the reference point
. Autophagy
digestion of damaged or un-needed organelles
breakdown of entire cell at apoptosis (cell death)
F. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
1. Synthesis of carbohydrates (glycogen) & lipids (cholesterol, steroid hormones)
2. Storage of calcium ions in muscle
3. Inactivation of toxins, steroid hormones and drugs
4. Tolerance
G. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
1. Associated with ribosomes
2. Production of proteins
3. Transport of molecules throughout the cytoplasm
4. Production of proteins which are packaged in vessicles and sent to Golgi for secretion from cell
H. Golgi Apparatus:
1. Stacks of membrane bound cisternae
2. Production of lysosomes
3. Production of secretory vessicles for secretion of moleccules from the cell
4. Production of storage granules
5. Modification of membrane structure
H. Ribosomes:
1. Two protein/rRNA subunits which associate with mRNA to translate the mRNA into proteins
2. Attach amino acids together forming peptide bonds between them using information from mRNA (which in turn receives information from DNA)
3. Often associated with the RER
I. Cilia & Flagella:
1. Hairlike structures create fluid movement on lumenal border of membranes (Fallopian tube, respiratory tract)
2. Contain microtubules for movement
3. Flagella on sperm cells only
J. Centrosome:
1. Two centrioles involved in production of microtubules during cell division (spindle fibers and aster fibers)
K. Micofilaments and Microtubules:
Muscles" of the cell
2. Movement of organelles within the cell (DNA during mitosis) or movement of cell (leukocytes)
L. Microvilli
1. Fingerlike projections of cell membrane
2. Increase surface area of the cell surface at lumenal border of epithelium

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