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Chem 112 First Test


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List the 5 organic compounds and the number of carbons they each have.
Methane- 1 Carbon
Ethane- 2 Carbons
Propane- 3
Butane- 4
Pentane- 5
If two substances have the same molecular formula, but different shapes, they are called __________.
Why will the ideal gas law never equal zero?
PV can never equal zero because volume can never be zero.
What shape is a graph comparing number of molecules of a gas and the average temperature of the molecules?
Normal bell shaped.
A gas is in constant _______, occupies the _________ space and has widely __________ molecules.
A liquid is in constant ________, and the temperature of the molecules is directly proportional to their _________ energy.
Intermolecular forces are:
the bonds between molecules that hold the molecules together.
True or False:
Intermolecular forces are stronger then the average covalent bond.
True or False:
The higher a substances boiling point, the better liquid it makes.
Intermolecular forces get stronger as the boiling point __________ (increases or decreases)
True or False:
Dispersion forces only apply to large molecules.
False, dispersion forces apply to all molecules.
Dispersion forces are defined as the...
Instantaneous polorization of molecules resulting in attraction.
Dipole-Dipole interactions apply only to polar molecules. Explain.
If a molecule is nonpolar it has no charge and can therefore not attract any other molecule.
True or False:
All substances with hydrogen bonding also have dipole interactions.
False I think.
List the three requirements of hydrogen bonding:
1. Must have H covalently linked to X.
2. X must be F, O or N.
3. The X atom must have at least one lone pair.
Why are F, O and N the only three atoms (besides H) that are involved in hydrogen bonding?
F, O and N are very electronegative atoms and only they have the power to steal away hydrogen's electron.
Why is hydrogen so special when it comes to hydrogen bonding? Why can't all elements bond in this way?
Hydrogen is the only element that bonds within the 1s shell, so when it's electron is pulled away, it's nucleus is exposed directly.
What is hydrogen attracted to on the F, O or N atom?
The lone pair(s).
Evaporation is AKA _______.
When the number of water molecules leaving the liquid state and returning from the gaseous state is equal, this system is said to be in:
Dynamic equilibrium
The number of water molecules that are leaving the liquid state for the gaseous state is called the:
Vapor pressure
When the temperature of a liquid increases, so does it's ________ __________.
Vapor pressure
Boiling point
The temp at which the vapor pressure reached the pressure above the liquid.
Normal Boiling Point
The temp at which the vapor pressure of a liquid reaches 1.00 atm.
The surface of a liquid is different from the rest of the liquid. This is called a:
Surface film
Surface film is measured by:
Surface tension
Describe surface tension.
The molecules on the surface of the liquid are more compact.
Intermolecular forces are also known as:
Cohesive forces
When a liquid interacts with the side of a container, these forces are called:
Adhesive forces
Describe capillary attraction.
When water travels up a tube places in a bigger recepticle of water.
True or False:
The kinetic energy of molecules in a solid are not directly proportional to the temperature.
False, they are proportional.
List the four types of solids:
1. Ionic
2. Molecular
3. Network
4. Metallic
Network solids don't melt well because they're...
connected together with covalent bonds.
Ionic solids have a ______ meelting point, while molecular solids have a _____ melting point.
high, low
When a network solid is pulled apart and the bonds are broken the solid appears to melt, but it is really a __________ reaction.
Define boiling point.
Temp at which liquid and gas states are in equilibrium.
Define melting point:
Temp at which solid and liquid states are at equilibrium.
Define sublimation:
When something goes directly from a solid to a gas.
Define deposition:
When a gas goes directly to a solid.
Define triple point:
All 3 states of matter can exist at the same time in equilibrium.
Define critical point:
The point at which you can't force a gas into a liquid, regardless of pressure forces.
Define supercritical fluid:
Past the critical point. Not a gas or a liquid, behaves as a fluid.
A phase diagram is used to:
figure out what phase a substance exists in.
The amount of heat required to change a solid to a liquid is called the:
Molar heat of fusion (Delta H fus)
The amoutn of heat requires to change a liquid to a gas is called the:
Molar heat of vaporization (delta H vap)
Define intramolecular forces:
When a long, dangly molecule wraps around and interacts with it's own tail.
If heat is released in a system, then the value of deltaHfus or deltaHvap will be ___________.
Define heat capacity:
Amount of heat required to change the temp of a sample 1.00 degree C.
Define Specific Heat Capacity:
Amount of heat required to change the temp of 1.00g of a sample 1.00 degree C.
Heat capacity is quantity _________ while specific heat capacity is quantity ____________.
independant, dependant
If the specific heat of ice is 2.09 J/gC, for every gram of the substance you have, you must add _________ J.
If a system is endothermic, will the total heat change be positive or negative?
How many kJ is 980 J?
.98 kJ
The solute is the substance...
being dissolved
The solvent is the substance...
doing the dissolving
Compare and contrast Molarity with Molality and include why molarity can often be less then accurate.
Molarity deals with volume which is difficult to read accuratly. Molality deals with weight.
Define Mole Fraction
Moles of one component per total moles present.
True or False
The total of all the mole fractions for a given substance will add up to 100.
False, they add up to 1.
What is the formula for molality?
m = moles/kg
How many kg is 1256g?
1.26 kg

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