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Relgions of India


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The Four Early Vedas
Rig Veda
Yajur Veda
Sama Veda
Atharva Veda
Rig Veda
Yajur Veda
Sama Veda
Atharva Veda
chants and incantations
Three Early Groups in India
contributions of the Harappansq
seals, religious symbols, ritual dances
contributions of the Dravidians
temples construction and worship, ritual dances, some specific dieties
contributions of the Aryans
the texts, the early and later vedas
Hinyana Buddhism
also Thurvada
"smaller vessel"
Southeast Asia
Mahayana Buddhism
"larger vessel"
Northern Asia
Four Noble Truths
(1) Life is Suffering
(2) Suffering is Caused by Desire
(3) Desire should be eliminated to eliminate suffering
(4) The 8-fold path
The Eight-Fold Path
1-right understanding
2-right aspiration
3-right speech
4-right conduct
5-right livilihood
6-right effect
7-right mindfullness/reflection
8-right concentration/meditaton
contributions of Jainism
1)ahisma (non-violence)
2)inter-connectedness of all life
3)merit/punya, individual affects futue without a priest, temporal actions have eternal value
4)tapas, austerities and asceticism lead to spiritual fulfillment
6)role of women
7)status of laity
8)economic and social contributions
sould of universe, includes all living things, classified by senses
non-living, unconscious things in the universe
characteristics of early vedas (in contrast to later vedas)
-reflect life and thought of Aryans before coming to India
-view of ultimacy: happiness in the present world, long and happy life
-means to goal: prayer and sacrkifice to gods
-style of writing: poetry
characteristics of later vedas (in contrast to early vedas)
-reflect life and though of Aryans settled in India
-view of ultimacy: release from rebirth cycle
-means to goal: knowledge and meditation
-role of gods greatly diminshed
-style of writing: prose
-addition of caste system and meditation
Indian Worldview
(1)spritiual is more important than material (physical)
(2)material world conceals spiritual truth
(3)human problem one of wrong thinking not wrong acting
(4)individual is responsible for own actions and consequences
(5)many paths (salvations) are available, each right for the individual
(6)time is cyclical
(7)life is circular
commentary on early vedas
books of later vedas:
Upanishads (most important)

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