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The Muscular System


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Muscles of the Face
Orbicularis oculi
Orb = circular; Ocul = eye
O – frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments around orbit.
I – tissue of eyelid
Zygomaticus (major or minor)

Zygomatic = cheekbone
O – zygomatic bone.
I – tissue of eyelid.
CN VII – Cranial Nerve.

Rusir = laughter.
O – lateral fascia associated with masseter muscle.

I – skin at angle of mouth.

CN VII – Cranial Nerve
Levator labii superioris

Leva = raise; labi = lip
O – Zyfomatic bone and infraorbital margin of maxilla.
I – skin and muscle of upper lip
CN VII – Facial Nerve
Depressor labii inferioris.

Depressor = depresses;
infer = below.
O – body of mandible lateral to its midline.

I – skin and muscle of lower lip.
CN VII – Facial Nerve.
Depressor anguli oris.

Angul = angle, corner;
or = mouth.
O – body of mandible below incusors.

I – skin and muscle at angle of mouth below insertion of zygomaticus.

CN VII – Facial Nerve
Orbicularis oris
O – arises indirectly from maxilla and mandible; fibers blended with fibers of other facial muscles associated with the lips.

I – encircles mouth; inserts into muscle and skin at angles of mouth.

CN VII – Facial Nerve

Ment = chin.
O – mandible below incisors

I – skin of chin.

CN VII – Facial Nerve.

Bucc = cheek or “trumpeter.”
O – molar region of maxilla and mandible

I – orbicularis oris.

CN VII – Facial Nerve.

Platy = broad, flat.
O – fascia of chest (over pectoral muscles and deltoid)

I – lower margin of mandible, and skin and muscle at corner of mouth.

CN V – Trigeminal Nerve.
Muscles of Mastication.


Maseter = chewer.
O – zygomatic arch and maxilla.

I – angle and ramus of mandible.

CN V – Trigeminal Nerve.

Tempora = time; pertaining to the temporal bone.
O – temporal fossa.

I – coronoid process of mandible via a tendon that passes deep to zygomatic arch.

CN V – Trigeminal Nerve.
Muscles Promoting Tongue Movements. (Extrinsic)


Geni = chin;
glossus = tongue.
O – internal surface of mandible near symphysis.

I – inferior aspect of the tongue and body of hyoid bone.

CN XII – Hypoglossal Nerve.

Hyo = pertaining to hyoid bone.
O – body and greater horn of hyoid bone

I -- inferolateral tongue.

CN XII – Hypoglossal Nerve.

Stylo = pertaining to styloid process.
O – styloid process of temporal bone.

I – inferolateral tongue.

CN XII – Hypoglossal Nerve.
Superhyoid Muscles
Muscles that help form floor of oral cavity, anchor tongue, elevate hyoid, and move larynx superiorly during swallowing; lie superior to hyoid bone.

Di = two; gaster = belly.
O – lower margin of mandible (anterior belly) and mastoid process of the temporal bone (posterior belly)

I – by a connective tissue loop to hyoid bone.

Mandibular branch of CN V for anterior belly; CN VII for posterior belly.
Styloyoid .
O – styloid process of temporal bone.

I – hyoid bone.

CN VII – Facial Nerve.

Myle = molar
O – medial surface of mandible.

I – hyoid bones and median raphe.

Mandibular branch of CN V

Geni = chin.
O – inner surface of mandibular symphysis.

I – hyoid bone.

First cervical spinal nerve via CN XII hypoglossal nerve.
Infrahyoid Muscles.
Straplike muscles that depress the hyoid bone and larynx during swallowing and speaking.

Sterno = sternum.
O – manubrium and medial end of clavicle .

I – lower margin of hyoid bone.

First cervical spinal nerve via CN XII hypoglossal nerve.

Thyro = thyroid cartilage.
O – posterior surface of manubrium of sternum.

I – thyroid cartilage.

First cervical spinal nerve via CN XII hypoglossal nerve.
.Pharyngeal constrictor muscles Superior, Middle, and Inferior.
O – attached anteriorly to mandible and medial ptergoid plate (superior), lyoid bone (middle), and laryngeal cartilages (inferior)

I – posterior median raphe of pharynx.

Pharyngeal plexus (branches of vagus (X
Sternocleidomastoid – STM.

Sterno = breastbone; cleido = clavicle; mastoid = mastoid process.
O – manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle.

I – mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line o occipital bone.

Accessory nerve CN XI and branches of cervical spinal nerves.
Erector spinae, also called sacrospinalis.
Prime mover of back extension; erector spinae muscles, each consisting of three columns- the iliocostalis, longussumus, and sponalis muscles—form intermediate layer of intrinsic back muscles; erector spinae provide resistance that helps control action of bending forward at the waist and act as a pwerfl extensors to promote return to erect positions; during full flexion.
Thoracis, cervices, and capitis parts.
Longissimus = longest.
O – transverse processes of lumber through cervical vertebrae.
I – transverse processes of thoracic or cervical vertebrae and to ribs superior to origin as indicated by name; capitis inserts into mastoid process of temporal bone.
Spinal Nerves (Dorsal rami)
thoracis, cervicis, and capitis regions.
semi = half; thorac = thorax.
O - spines of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertabae.
I - spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertabrae.
Spinal Nerves (Dorsal rami)
quadratus lumborum
quad = four-sided;
lumb = lumbar region
O - iliac crest and lumber fascia.
I - transverse processes of upper lumber vertebrae and lower margin of 12th rib.
External intercostals
external = towards the outside; inter = between; cost = ribs
O - inferior border of rib above.
I - superior border of rib below.
Intercostal Nerves.
Internal intercostals
internal = towards the inside, deep.
O - superior border of rib below.
I - inferior border (costal groove) of rib above.
Intercostal Nerves.
dia = across;
phragm = partition.
O - inferior, internal furface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilages of last six ribs and lumbar vertebrae.
I - central tendon.
Phrenic Nerves.

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