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AP Euro 1st Semester


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Ice Age
A period of extreme glaciers that covered the earth
Homo erectus
Pre-evolved homo sapien; did not have language but walked similar to human
“Great Ice Age"
The Ice Age which made the land bridge that brought tribes from Russia to North America
A culture formed from the environment and climate of the group’s inhabitant area
Mountains that divide Spain from France
Key Rivers in Europe
Development near rivers lead to the importance of certain rivers in Europe including: the Thames River (London), Seine River (Paris), Danube River (Vienna and Budapest) and Vistula River (Warsaw)
Complicated way of living or what is recent or current
Big rock structures, one of the most famous is Stonehenge
The languages related to those now spoken in Iran and India; the people who speak these languages are ancestors of classical Romans and Greeks. All languages in Europe today are Indo-European (except Finnish, Hungarian and Basque) including Latin, Greek, Germanic, Slavic, Celtic and Baltic
Small civilizations within Greece which frequently were at war with each other and changed government type
Few representatives ruling over the entire population
“classical virtues”
The value of order, system and symmetry of the Greeks- was seen in their architecture, statues and writing
Famous Greek who wrote an encyclopedia of ancient science on medicine
Roman Provinces
The Roman empire conquered most of the ancient world west of Persia: Egypt, Greece, Asia Minor and Syria- had the most peoples ever governed from a single center
The rapid spread of the Roman culture through its provinces and the rest of Europe, including the spoken use of West Latin in most countries
Romance languages
The languages transformed from West Latin: French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian
Orbis terrarium
The circle of land controlled by the Roman empire
Pax Romana
The Roman empire kept peace, and held justice within its people
Roman law
Was a body of principles established by Roman lawyers and favored the state interests rather than the interests of individual people
Is the holding of one man by the powers of ruler and of pontiff; also that spiritual and political power were joined
St. Augustine
Wrote the City of God- about how there are two different cities, earthly and heavenly and that the emperor is a man, not God
Emperor of Rome who embraced Christianity and created Constantinople
People who didn’t speak Latin or Greek and were never brought into civilization (Celts in Wales and Scotland, Germans and Persians)
Byzantine Empire
The later Greece and Rome which included the Asia Minor peninsula, Balkan peninsula and parts of Italy; it was Christian in religion and Greek in culture and language
The successor of Muhammad
Latin Christendom
Italy, France, Belgium, Rhineland and Britain where the government had fallen and the lands were taken inhabited by barbarians
A government in control of a bishop and the Church
Rule of St. Benedict
Monasteries had specific schedule of praying and working under the control of St. Benedict
“Petrine Supremacy”
Endowment of Rome’s government to the bishop
Donation of Constantine
Showed that the emperor had given the rule of Rome to the bishop; wasn’t found to be a forgery until the 15th century
Crowned the first Holy Roman Emperor by the pope (prior to that he was a Frankish king); pushed Muslims out of Spain, but couldn’t get the Eastern empire
The new capital of the Holy Roman Empire because it was close to Charlemagne
Harun al Rashid
the great caliph at Bagdad
Hungarian barbarians
a tribe of Germanic barbarians who settled in Scandinavia
the capital of Ukraine which the Vikings captured
Great Schism of the East and West
the West and the East began to drift apart. The East not recognizing the bishop of Constatinople was a great factor in this breakup
Not religious
Villagers worked in the lord’s estate in return for protection, but they could not leave
“nucleated” villages
communities of the rural population who wanted more security, more contact between families and better access to blacksmith or priest. They also had communally organized agriculture
“three-field” system
Divided the land into three parts and rotated the crops that they would plant every year (each year one part would be unplanted); gave the village a greater food supply
the count gave protection to the lesser lords in return for peace and military support- he became their lord and they became his vassals
Hugh Capet
Was elected king of France by the lords
William, Duke of Normandy
Conquered and developed feudalism in England
Manor System
The lord kept serfs at his manor to work the land in return for protection

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