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Alex Tang's Texas Government


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5 Stages of Public Policy Process
Agenda Building, Policy Formulation, Policy Adoption, Policu Implementation, and Policy Evaluation
Process through which issues become public concern/government action.
Agenda Building
What is Policy Formulation?
Development of strategies for dealing with problems on official policy agenda.
What are the 2 types of policy formulation and describe them.
Rational Comprehensive Model: Est. Goals, identify alternatives, estimate cost/benefits, and select policy with greatest benefit.

Incremental Model: Working with imperfect info, continually adjust policies for goals, constantly readjusting.
Official Decision of Gov. Body to addpet particulat policy and put it into effect
Policy Adoption
What is Policy Implementation?
Stage of policy process which policies are carried out.
People: District attorneys, Judges, Governers, etc.
Assessment of Policy, questions equity, efficiency,effectiveness, and political feasibility.
Policy Evaluation

The People, Economy, and Political Culture of Texas.
(Not Very Important)
Chapter One, Bitches.
What is Hopwood v. Texas, and the case. (More questions Ahead)
Affirmative Action suit againts UT Austin. White people argued that they were better qualified then latinos/blacks.
What is the Equal Protection Clause.
Why Texas lost the case, 14th amendment, "No State shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
What famous alternative affirmative action program we all saw in high school came from this case.
The top 10% rule.

Chapter Two, Bitches
Significance of Edgewood v. Kirby?
Controversial School funding suit, ended up with Robin Hood Plan, whereas richer districts gave poorer districts money (forceably). MAX: 280,000 property wealth per student.
State constitution/laws are authorative so long they do not conflict with U.S. constitution/federal law.
Federal Preemption of State Authority.
Plural Executive
division of executive power among seceral elected officials, weaken their governers.
2 Principles of Jacksonian Democracy, adopted by Texas
Suffrage - right to vote
Long Ballot - election of nearly every public official of any significance
What is the homestead act, made in Constitutional Convention of 1875?
legal residence, cannot be taken in payment of debt, except for loan payment or tax delinquency
What is the significance of the Constitutional Convention pf 1875?
Branch Banking: single large bank ocnducts business in several location.

New Constituion approved, fundamental law of state of texas
Provision of the Texas Constitution that states the following: "Equality under the law shall not be denied or abridged because of sex,race,color,creed,or national orgin"
Texas Equal Rights Amendments (ERA)
Budget Execution Authority (Limited for Texas Governers)
power to cut agency spencing or transfer money b/w agencies during period when legislature is not in session.
Dedicated Funds
constitutional/statutory for particular purpose. E.g. Dedicated Highway Fund, Permanant University Fund
Constituional Summary of Policy Making in TEXAS.
IT (Constitution) est. ground rules, laws must be passed by both houses, and signed by governer. (Veto = 2/3 In both houses)

The Federal Context of Texas Policymaking
Chapter 3, Bitches!
What is the Texas Natural Conservation Commission TNRCC
the state agency responsibly for enforcing pollution control regulations in Texas.
States In Federal System
Federation: Political System that divides power with a central gov, and state governments.

Soveriegnty: Authority os state to excercise own powers in itsboundaries

National Supremecy Clause: Federal > State.
Ruiz v Estelle

Prison Overcrowding Suit.

Texan Prisons were constituted "cruel and unusual punishment" Many sweeping changed to Texas prisons, and expanded the prison a lot.
Roe v. Wade

Abortion Suit.
3 Trimesters.
1st: No Interference
2nd: Regulate only to protect health of women.
3rd: After viability (survive out of womb), state could prohibit abortion, except when to save women life.

Abortion now legal in all states.
Factoid: Policy Formulation and Adoption
The federal gov influences state policy adoption.

States raise drinking age to 21, lower speed limit, to get more highway grant money.
Factiod: Policy Implementation & Evaluation
When States accept federal funds, there are usually strict guidelines, E.g. Clean Air Act,

Policies are Evaluated by grant deserve continue funding or whether state policies are constitutional.
Franchise / Enfranchise
Right to vote/ grant right to vote
Smith v. Allwright
Removed white primary, helped black citizens vote, soon poll tax would be gone as well.
Election Precint
VOting District
Practice of polic targeting individuals as suspected criminals based on race.
What is Racial Profiling, Alex.
NEW SECTION: Interest Groups
Did you know that Kristen Kreuk is really hot?!
Tort Reform/Case
Reform: revision of state laws to limit ability of plantiffs in personal injury lawsuits to recover damages in court.

Case: legal dispute from personal injury/property. E.g. Car Crash
Factiods: Court Related
Plantiff: Initiate Lawsuit

Civil Defendant: party to respond to suit.

Punitive Damages: monetary awards forcivil suits.
Factiods: Organized Labor

(American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations)
Right to Work Law: Prevents union shop.

Union/Closed Shop: workplace where all must be in a union.

Frostbelt: NE MidW, with strong industrilized union states.
Factoids: Interest Groups

Collective Bargaining: negotiation b/w employer and union representing them.
Religious Right: individuals (conservative) views from their religion.

Advocacy Group: representing those who cannot represent themselve, E.g. Children Defense Fund.

Cause Group: Single Issue groups, NRA, MADD.
Factiods: Interest Group Tactics

Political Action Committees(PACS)
Organizations to raise/distribute money for campaings.

Lobbying: communication of info by rep. of IG to influence a policy.
WHY interest groups give money?
1. Influence policy
2. Gain Access to the legislative policy.
3. Avoid Making Powerful Enemies
Ex post facto
After the fact law, a.k.a you cannot be arrested for doing something that was not illegal when you did it.
Factoid: Legislative Meetings
Every 2 years, or when called by governer.
Representative Qualifications
Citizen of the United States, voter of this State,resident of this for two years, and is twenty-one years old.
Senator Qualifications
Citizen of the United States, voter of this State,resident of this for five years, and is twenty-six years old.
The Executive Department of the State shall consist of?
A Governor, who shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the State, a Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Commissioner of the General Land Office, and Attorney General
Governer Qualifications
The Governor First Tuesday after the organization of the Legislature,term of four years, or until his successor shall be duly installed.thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, and resided at least five years.
Passing of Bill Procedure
Originate with in House or Senate, approved by both. If Veto return for 2/3 approval by both house. Governer has 1 line veto power, if no response within 10 days it is passed.
Same Qualifications as Governer.
President of Senate, tie break vote. Replace Governer when need be.
President pro tempore of the Senate
This is the highest ranking senator, basically a vice vice governer.
Secretary of State Obligations.
Appointed by the Governor, w/ advice and consent of the Senate, and in office w/ current Governor.
Represent State in suits in the Supreme Court of Texas in where state is party, and shall especially inquire into the charter rights of all private corporations, in the name of the State take action in the courts to prevent private corporation from exercising any power not allocated to them not authorized by law.
He shall seek a judicial forfeiture of such charters, unless otherwise expressly directed by law, and give legal advice in writing to the Governor and others. And perform such other duties required by law.
The Comptroller of Public Accounts, Commissioner of the General Land Office, Attorney General, and any statutory State officer who is elected by the electorate of Texas at large will...
4 year terms, live at state capitol.
The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one Supreme Court, in one Court of Criminal Appeals, in Courts of Appeals, in District Courts, in County Courts, in Commissioners Courts, in Courts of Justices of the Peace.
The Supreme Court
Chief Justice and eight Justices.
licensed to practice law in this state and citizen of the United States, age of thirty-five years, and has been a practicing lawyer, or a lawyer and judge of a court of record together at least 10 years.
Elected (three every two years) at a general election; shall 6 year offices.
The Court of Criminal Appeals
Same as Supreme Court, a court of last resort for criminal cases I suppose.
in District Courts, the plaintiff or defendant shall, upon application made in open court, have the right of trial by jury, their fees will be payed by the demandee.
Juror Qualifications
cannot be convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes.
Under 18 years of age,mentally incompetent, and
persons convicted of any felony.
exclude those who have bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes.
Voting Priveledge
Voters shall, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning therefrom.
One-fourth of the revenue derived from the State occupation taxes shall be set apart annually for public schools.
The State Board of Education duties will be to set amount of available funds to provide free text books for the use of children attending the public free schools of this State.

If taxation be insufficient, the deficit may be met by appropriation from the general funds of the State.

The Legislature may provide for the formation of school districts by general laws, and school districts may be parts of two or more counties.
The legislature shall establish, organize and provide for the maintenance, support and direction of a University of the first class, and styled, "The University of Texas," for the promotion of literature, and the arts and sciences, including an Agricultural, and Mechanical department.
Permanant University Fund(PUF): Constitution Factoids
UT may invest the (PUF) in securities, bonds or other obligations issued, insured, or guaranteed in any manner by the United States Government.

UT can put PUF in any kind of investment, that prudent investors would acquire or retain in light of the purposes, terms, distribution requirements, and other circumstances of the fund then prevailing considering the investment of all the assets of the fund rather than a single investment.
search on wilkipedia for it!
ad valorem taxes.

Ad valorem is Latin for "According to value".

From Wilkepedia
No STATE ad-valorem tax.
Typically imposed at the time of a transaction (a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT)) but it may be imposed on an annual basis (property tax) or in connection with another significant event (inheritance tax or tariffs).
There shall be one General Land Office in the State, where all land titles shall be registered.
The power of impeachment shall be vested in the House of Representatives.
(a) The Legislature may propose amendments revising the Constitution. The date of the elections shall be specified by the Legislature.

The proposal be approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to each House.

(b) A brief explanatory statement of the nature of a proposed amendment.

(c) If it appears from the returns that a majority of the votes cast have been cast in favor of an amendment, it shall become a part of this Constitution, and proclamation thereof shall be made by the Governor.
:::CHAPTER 6::::

Political Parties
Holy Crap MY TEST IS tomorrow.
- Alex
History of the Texas Party System Segment...

Breif Overview follows
Texas has 5 Party eras
1. Reconstruction (1870's) to 1930's. One party Democratic.

2. 1930's-1952 One party stsate, but liberal & conservative factions within Democratic Party

3. 1952-1978 3 Sides. Conservative Demo, Liberal Demo, Republicans.

4. 1978-1994 Competetive 2 party, equal.

5. 1994- Present, 2 party system, republicans w/ advantage.
First Party Era: One Party Democratic 1970-1930
Solid South - Sweeping Democratic Victories.

Very Racist times, poll tax levied, white primary elected most officials.
Second Party Era: Democratic Party Factionalist 1930's-1952
Liberals supported roosevelts "New Deal Program" and exacted several great depression combats.

Their power waned after the depression cuz Rep has more money and liberal supporters were less likely to vote. (poorer)
Third Party Era: Cons. Dem, Liberal Dem, Repulic. 52-78.

Yellow Dog Democrat- Loyal democratic party voter.
Liberal Democrats gained str. cuz dem. electorate was changing, minorities could actually vote unharassed now.

Additionally Rep. Gained str. cuz of eisenhower's badassness, won state in 52&56.

Why? Many cons, saw a increasing liberal national dem, and the civil war bitterness has faded away, thus the rise of rep is inevitable or etc.
Fourth Party Era: Become 2 party state 1978-1994.
Started by the 78 election, John Hill (Liberal Dem.) won primary againts Cons Dem Incumbent.

Then GOP Clements won for the first time in over a century for a Rep. Governer againts Hill. EXCITING TIMES.

Between this era, 5 pres election, 7 senate, 5 governers elections. Rep won 13/17. But Most statewide exe offices below gov. were for dem.

Why? Tradition on their side, long time dem. incubents, larger pool of dem expereinced incubents, republican issues at statewide/nationwide were just better.
Fifth Party Era: TX becomes republican state. 1994-NOW
Bush beats Ann Richards, rise of republicans.

Party Identification is equal but rep are more likely to vote. Ever rising # of rep. seats, after 2000 elections, almsot every district judge/county officials were rep.
Current Party Details: FACTOIDS GALORE.
Rep outspends/outorganizes the dem.

Group Alliances: Give money directly or through independent expenditures(funds spent on behald on candidate that are not coordinated with candidats campaign).
Voting Patterns. Income, Race & Ethnicity, Region, Place of Residence.
High Income -> Rep.
Lower-> Dem.

Minority(blacks)-> Dem.
non-hispanic white- Rep.

East/South Texas (Latino)-> Dem.
West/Panhandle/Central (NOT AUSTIN) -> Rep.

Suburbs-> Rep.
Inner City-> Dem.
Both dont like TAAS (TAKS now). Dem: need more complete evaluation system. Rep: amount of time devoted could be used for teaching basic skills.

Dem Favor increase min wage, rep want to revoke it.

Dem want clean air act, rep want to destroy the EPA.
Party Division.

Random Fact: Hate Crime Legislation- legislatice measure that increases penalties for persons convited of criminality based on race,religion,gender,etc.
Dem are seperated though conservative/liberal ( a bit ).

Rep is social/business oriented conservative. Social: oppose abortion, gambling, gay/lesbian rights, and creation science. Basically Moral/Cultural Issues.

Business believe moral concerns must be balanced againts nations economic health.

E.g. Moral want to enact "Freedom from Religious Persecution Act" stopping trade from countries which persecute religion (china, etc)
NEW SECTION: CHAPTER 8 (Skipped 7:elections)

I love 1/2 Price Books.

- Alex Tang
Bicameral Legislature.

Fact: Nebraska has a unicameral legislature.
150 House(2 Year), 31 Senators (4 year terms, election every 2 years)

House alone has power of impeachment, by majority vote.

Senate tries the impeachment and need 2/3 vote to remove official.
Session Frequency/Length
Legislature meetws odd calender years, 2nd tuesday of January.

Texas Legislature cannot call themselves into session, only the gov. can (30 days).

140 Days for long session.
Legislature Membership
Mostly white males, no asians, one openly gay, mostly professionals (law and business).
Legislature Compensation
Very low, 7200 a year, but has a higher nonsalary compensation, 119 a day.

Lt. Governer & Speaker of House are presiding officers. Gov/Lt. Gov are not on same ticket, if Lt. Gov become vacant, Senate chooses succesor.

Speaker is state rep, public voting. Bot
Legislature Turnover: replacement of members from one session to the next.

Texas does not have term limitations of initiative & referendum.

COMMITTEES: Most influencital
House: Ways&Means, Appropriations, State Affairs
Senate: Finance, State Affairs, Juriprudence.
Standing commitee is permanent commitee to handle legislation.

No legislature may be on more then 2 of the committes or be chair of more then 1 committe.
Legislaive PROCESS

bill= proposed law.

resolution = legislative statement on certain manner.

joint resolution = amendment, 2/3 of both chamber.
Legislative Budget Board: agency to study state revunue and budgetary needs b/w legislative sessions and prepare budget/appropration bills to submit.

Legislative Redistricting Board, agency where speaker, lt. governer, comptroller, land commisioner, attorney general, redraw boundaries of house/senate seats when legislature cannot do a redistricting plan.
I'm Taking the test in 2.5 Hours so, im just gonna put random facts in now, just reading, good luck on your test!
line item veto limited to appropriations bill, authorization to spend money for particular purpose.
repeieve- postponement of punishment.
pardon - exemption of punishment
commutation - reduction of punishment.

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