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1st AID USMLE Step 1 Neurology and Psychiatry Pathology


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elevated alpha fetoprotein in amniotic fluid

no structural herniation
spina bifida oculta *usually seen at lower vertebral levels
meninges herniate through spinal canal defect meningocele meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect
consequence of a lesion to broca's area
Motor aphasia with good comprehension
consequence of lesion to wernicke's area
sensory aphasia with poor comprehension (fluent)
consequence of lesion to arcuate fasciculus
conduction aphasia; poor repitition with good comprehension, fluent speech
consequence of lesion to Amygdala (bilateral)
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibition)
Consequence of lesion to frontal lobe
personality changes and deficits in concentration, orientation, and judgement, may have reemergence of primitive reflexes
Consequence of lesion to right parietal lobe
spatial neglect syndrome--left sided neglect
consequence of lesion to mamillary bodies (bilateral)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Consequense of lesion to the basal ganglia
tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis
Consequense of lesion to cerebellar hemisphere
intention tremor, limb ataxia
consequence of lesion to cerebellar vermis
truncal ataxia, dysarthria
consequence of lesion to subthalamic nucleus
contralateral hemiballismus
hemisphere vs vermis lesions of cerebellum
hemisphere: lateral lesion affects lateral limbs

vermis: central lesion affects central body
slow writhing movements, esp of fingers
characteristic of basal ganglia lesion
sudden wild flailing of 1 arm

characteristic of contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion
loss of inhibition of thalamus thru globus pallidus
degeneration of cerebral cortex
Dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian sx
intracellular aggregated tau protein
specific for frontal and temporal lobes

Pick's disease
degenerative disease of cerebral cortex
Dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian
intracellular aggregated tau protein
specific for frontal and temporal lobes
Pick's disease
protein's associated with familial alzheimers
chromosme 1, 14, 19: APOE4 allele

Chrom 21: p-App gene
autosomal dominant inheritance
chorea and dementia
atrophy of caudate nucleus (loss of GABAergic neurons)
Huntington's disease
Pathological anatomy and histology
Lewy bodies and depigmentation of the substantia nigra pars compacta
Spinocerebellar deiseases, err wtf
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy; Friedreich's ataxia
Biochemical genetics of huntington's
Chromosome 4 expansion of CAG repeats

CAG=Caudate loses Ach and Gaba
Tremor type in Parkinson's

Tremor (resting); Rigidity (cogwheel); Akinesia; Postural instability

'trapped in body'
floppy baby w/ tongue fasciculations
death at 7 months
Wernig-Hoffmann disease
***degeneration of anterior horns
Polio symptoms, pathology
LMN signs
degeneration of anterior horns

Deck Info