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BIOCHEM: Review of Gen Chem and Cellular biology


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The bioelements are
C, H, N, O, P, S, Ca,

Na, Mg, K, Cl... B, Pt, Li
why is it that most on biological molecules are carbon based
the same reason nature makes most molecules organic compounds. The bond energies of Carbon with anyother element differs slightly from 90 kcal/mol and therefore there is a minimal energy gradient to overcome.
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells
Cell wall
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
cell membrane
The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
The part of a bacterium or virus that contains nucleic acid and is analogous in function to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
A minute round particle composed of RNA and protein that is found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.
A cellular or cytoplasmic particle, especially one that stains readily.
storage granules
The internal framework of a cell, composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.
A long, threadlike appendage, especially a whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that functions as an organ of locomotion.
A hair or hairlike structure, especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism.
What is the bond angle of water?
How does the regiochemistry of water effect hydrogen bonding?
Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds but are strongest when they are completely linear. App. 19 kcal/mol.
The four colligative properties of any solvent (water):
with impurities in solvent:
1.) F.P goes down
2.) B.P goes up
3.) Lower Vapor pressure
4.) Lower Osmotic Pressure
What is the effect of Water's dielectric constants
Water has the highest dielectric constant of any solvent and THEREFORE makes it a great insulator.
What from a biochemistry standpoint is so important about water's dielectric constant?
All cells are in aqueous environments and therefore allow oppositely charged proteins to stay intact. Outside the cell, they break apart because of their regions of dipoles.
Brønsted argued that all acid-base reactions involve the transfer of an H+ ion, or proton. Water reacts with itself, for example, by transferring an H+ ion from one molecule to another to form an H3O+ ion and an OH- ion.
Bronsted Lowry Acids and bases
Molecules that give off H+
Bronsted Acids
Molecules that are proton acceptors
Bronsted bases
An electron pair acceptor is a
Lewis Acid
An electron pair donor is a
Lewis base
What does neutrality mean or Keq mean in chemistry?
NOT pH= 7. Neutrality is where the concentration of anions is equal to that of cations (H+ and OH-)
The pKw of water is accepted to be.... what is it dependent on... If the temperature was raised how would you expect the pkw to change?
pkW goes down
Any substance (even HCl) is a good buffer where?
within 1 pH unit of its pkA.
Proteins are made up of... which are ampholytes which means...
Amino acids; they have both acidic and basic properties.

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