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Ap Biology semester final


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Characteristics of Living Things
Cells, Organized, use of NRG for Growth and Maintenance, Grow and Devolop, Life Span, Reproduction, Respond to Stimuli, Adaptations
Hierachy of Organization
Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biomes, Biosphere
Emergent Properties
Order, Reproduction, Growth and Development, use of NRG, Response to Enviro, Homeostasis, Evolutionary Adaptation
Correlation btwn structure and Function
"form fits function"
lost e- and became +
gain e- and become -
Why are these weak bonds important?
help stablize macromolecules, make temperary bonds possible (nerve cell conduction), capillary action
Characteristics of Water
Universal Solvent (philic, phobic), cohesive & adhesive, high specific heat (stabilizes temp. for warm-blooded animals & large bodies of water), high boiling point, good evaporative coolent (takes heat away from body), ice expands.
carbohydrates, that form rings, maj. NRG source for body (glucose)
2 monosaccharides are joined by a _________ linkage
glycosidic , maltose, lactose and sucrose
Starch and Glycogen are ______ that are used for _______
polysaccharides, storage
cellulose is use in plants as?
plant cell walls
What is chitin?
polymer of an amino sugar exoskeleten of arthropods, cell walls of some fungi
Uses of proteins
Structure (hain, nails, fibrin), Transport (hemoglobin), Signaling (chem messengers (hormones) protein receptors, movement (myosin, actin), defense (antibodies), enzymes
Amino acids are joined together by...
peptide bonds (COOH + NH2)
Primary structure of a protein
linear unbranched aas
Secondary structure of a protein
alpha helix coils and Beta Pleated sheets *H-bonds*
Tertiary Structure
~ by interactions btwn R-groups(weak) and strong disulfide bonds
Quternary Structure
H-bonds, 2 or more poly peptide chains
Denaturation of proteins causes
pH, temperature, salinity
Lipids are --- and LDF
non-polar, holds them together
What are for classes of Lipids?
Fats (sat and unsat), Phospholipids (lipid bilayer), Steroids,(cholesterol-stabilizes struture of cell membranes and can be made into vitamens, bile salts and hormones), Waxes ( fatty acid-alcohols)
Nucleic Acids function
transmits hereditary info, chemical NRG, subunits of coenzyems
ATP does work
mechanical, transport, chemical
Enzymes are ____ specific, when _______ bind to active sites, enzymes undergo _______fit, [substrate] effects _____ rate
substrate (2), reaction
Factors effecting Enzyme activity
pH and temperature, cofactors (vitamins and Zn...)
competitive inhibitors
chemicals that resmeble an enzyme's normal substrat and compete for active site
noncompetitive inhibitors
bind to other part of an enzyme than active site and causes enzyme to change shape
allosteric site
receptor site and activate or inhibit an enzyme
feedback inhibition
regulation of a metabolic pathway by its end product binding to allosteric site
substrate binding to active site of 1 subunit that helps other substrats bind to theirs
Localiztion of Enzymes help ___ metabolism
Summary of glycolysis
no C lost, each step enzyme catalyzed, partial oxidation of glucose, glucose rearranged and split
products vs. reactants in glycolysis
glucose, 2 ATP vs. 2 ATP, NaDH, 2 pyruvic acid
products vs. reactants in The Krebs Cycle
pyruvate + oxalacete = citric acid vs. NADH=8, FADH2=2, CO2=6, ATP=2
substrate level phosphoration
enzyme takes P1 from one molecule to ADP making ATP.
H+ pumps and other proteins embedded
accepts electrons from NADH
intermembrane space
high [h+]
movement of H+ down proton gradient accross a membrane coupled w/ ATP synthesis
Total # of ATP produced in ETC
oxidative phosphorlation
pass e- down ETC to make H20 and ATP
Where does photosynthesis happen?
in the thylakoid of a chloroplast
What happens?
light induces e- to pass through groups of chloroplasts in PSII to rxn center Chloroplast a. e- travel to H+ pump that pumps in H+ into the thylakoid space. ATP is made thru photophosphoration w/ the proton current. e- replaced w/ the splitting of water. in PSI, e- travel to NADP reductase to make NADPH
Why does the cyclic cycle happen?
to make more ATP. PS1 the e- go back to rxn center and do not make NADPH
Location of calvin cycle
What happens in the calvin cycle?
RuBP binds to Rubisco. Co2 enters and binds--> C6 compound. ATP and NADPH NRG added to make PGAL. RuBP regenrates
Reasons why calvin cycle does no occur at night
stomates close during the day, NADPH and ATP can't be made w/o light and last only for a few minutes, Rubisco is light activated
What can RuBP bind to
CO2 and O2
A _____ can go thru photorespiration when O2 level is high
C3, does not make any NRG
A C4 plant makes_____ that goes into the bundle sheath cells as_____ to go through the calvin cycle
oxalocetate , malic acid
CAM plant goes thru ______ acid metablism hot+ dry. When are the stomates open? closed?
Crassuiacean, night, day
What do CAM plants make at night? by day?
malic acid and NRG, PEP + CO2
What are the types of fermentation? their products?
Alcoholic (CO2 and ethanol-toxic), Lactic Acid,(Lactic acid) both produce 2 ATP b/c of glycolysis
Characteristics of Prokaryotes
mesosome internal membrane, no true nucleus, genetic material in nucleoid region, no membrane bound organelles
Characteristics of Eukaryotes
true nucleus, bounded by envelope, organelles
What wavelengths are primarily aborbed in photosynthesis?
Red and Blue

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