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unit 2a the cell test


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all same type of cell
Cell theory
Are the basic unit of structure and function of living things and all cells come from pre-existing cells
What are the exceptions to the cell theory?
The first cell, viruses, and chloroplast and mitochondria
Simple-no true nucleus or membround bound organelle-bacteria
complex-true nucleus and membrane bound organelle- it is us
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
discovered unicellular organisms in pond water
Robert Hooke
examined tree bark and discovered cell wall- branded the word cell
Robert Brown
discovered the cell nucleus
Matthias Schleiden
Studied plants and determined all plants have cells
Theodor Schwann
studied animals and determined all animals have cells
Rudolph Virchow
concluded all cells come from pre-existing cells
compound light microscope
major tool for cell study
electron microscope
most powerful microscope- study organelles
dissecting microscope
for use during dissections
separates cell parts according to their densities
microdissection instruments
removal, addition, or transfer of individual cell organelles
what stains are used to study cells more in detail
lugols iodine and methylene blue
cell membrane
outer membrane- regulates transport of materials into and out of cell- semi-permeable
fluid-like environment between nucleus and plasma membrane
center of cell- has genetic information and is the control center
in nucleus- helps make ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
series of membranes associated with storage, synthesis, and transport of substances within the cell
sites of protein synthesis- often attached to ER
power houses of cell- cellular respiration and production of ATP
golgi complex
membrane bound sacs that synthesize, package, and secrete cellular products
have digestive enzymes which breakdown materials
a space in a cell surrounded by membrane
found in cytoplasm- in animal cells
found in plant and algae cells- pigment containing structures which are site for photosynthesis
cell wall
made of cellulose- surrounds, protects, and supports a plant cell
plant cells-
have cell wall-large vacuoles- chloroplasts
animal cells-
have centrioles
what are the objective leness
theyre the closest to the specimen
low power lense:
shorter lens, less magnification
high power lens
longer lens, more magnification
what power is the ocular lens or eyepiece
what does the light do in the microscope
it produces the image
function of tube
holds the lenses
rotates the objective lenses
platform on which the specimen is mounted
hold the slide into position
controls amount of light passing through the specimen
light source
mirror or electric light
holds the tube and the stage
supports the microscope
coarse adjustment
focusing under low power- dont use under high power
fine adjustment
focusing under high power
magnification equation
power of objective * power of ocular
the ability of a microscope to show two points that are close together as separate images
the image that the microscope produces is inverted
metric unit used with microscope
microns or micrometers
how many milimeters are in a micrometer
1 mm- 1000 micrometers
includes the passage of materials into the cells (absorption) and the distribution within the cells and throughout the organisms (circulation)
structure of the cell membrance
made up of lipids and proteins- two layers
the three factors that determine whether or not a material will pass through the cell membrane
size, shape, and chemical properties
functin of cell membrane
to selectively regulate hte passage of materials in and out of the cell- aids in keeping homeostatis
movement of material from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration
diffusion of water molecules across a cell membrane
facilitated diffusion
diffusion through a cell membrane protein channel
concentration gradient
the difference in the concentration of a material across a cell membrane
dynamic equilibrium
moving state of balance
active transport
requires energy from cell- can happen in either high to low concentratin or vice versa- transport is assisted by carrier proteins (pumps)
when a cell engulfs large undissolved particles and encloses them in a vacuole (requires energy)
when a cell engulfs large dissolved particles and lipids( requires energy)
taking in
taking out

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