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Child Psych Final Exam


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looking glass self
the idea that a child's self-concept is largely determined by the ways other people respond to him or her
claude cooley
looking glass self
individualistic cultures
they value competition and individual initiative and tend to emphasize ways in which people differ from each other
collectivistic cultures
people are more cooperative and interdependent rather than competitive and independent, and thier identities are closely tied to the groups to which they belong rather than to their own accomplishments and personal characteristics
tend to value self-effacement and view individuals who are preoccupied with personal concerns as somewhat abnormal and maladjusted
how does a chil'd culture affect the self-concept?
the majority of american students' core self-descriptors were personal/individualistic attributes whereas these same attributes made up only a small portion of the core self-descriptores of the japanese students. japanese students were more inclined to list social/relational attributes as noteworthy components of their self-concepts. older japanese adolescents are less invlined than preadolescents are to make distinctions among people on the basis of individualistic attributes whereas american participants become more inclined with age.
achievement motivation
a willingness to strive to succeed at challenging task and to meet high standards of accomplishment
three home environment factors thought to foster high achievement motivation in children
1) Quality of attachment
2) Home Environment
3) Child Rearing and Achievement
how do peer influences on school achievement differ across ethnic groups? possible reasons for those ethnic differences?
african american and latino peer groups in many low-income areas actively discourage academic achievement whereas European American and Asian American peer groups tend to value and encourage it;
some high-achieving african american students may actually run the risk of being rejected by their peers if their academic accomplishments cause them to be perceived as acting white; children whose parents value education highly and work hard to promote their achievement tend to associate with peers who shoare those values
Dweck's theory of learned helplessness with regard to achievement motivation--the kinds of causal attributions involved
parents and teachers may foster the development of learned helplessness if they priase the child for working hard when she succeeds but criticize her lack of ability when she fails; if parents and teachers praise the chil'd efforts at devising effective problem-seeking strategies when she succeeds but emphasize her lack of effort when she fails, the child may conclude that she is certainly capable enough and could do much better if she tried harder
what kind of experience has been found to be effective in countering learned helplessness?
attribution retraining
attribution retraining
therapeutic intervention in which helpless children are persuaded to attribute failures to their lack of effort rather than a lack of ability
thoery of mind
the understanding that people are cognitive beings with mental states (beliefes, motives, feelings, and intentions) that are not always accessible to others and that often guides their behavior
role taking
the ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
to what extent should the concept of theory of mind be applied to animals such as the great apes?
not all aspects of self-consiousness or thoery of mind are uniquely human; apes can share attention by following the gaze of another ape to an object, learn from one another socially, communicate by calls and gestures, and collaborate to obtain resources
various ways by which inaccurate gender-role sterotypes are perpetuated
female's role as childbearer is largely responsible; girls are encouraged to assume an expressive role; these traits would prepare girls to play the wife and mother; boys are encouraged to adopt an instrumental role who must provide for the family and protect them from harm
research results that suggest that children are aware of many gender-role sterotypes long before they enter elementary school
toddlers begin to acquire gender-role sterotypes at about the same time that they become aware of their basic identities as boys or girls; when shown a girl and boy doll, most children were able to identify which one would most likely engage in certian activities
Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental view of sex-role development--basic gender identity
by age 3 children have labeled firmly themselves as boys or girls
kohlberg's cognitive-development view of sex-role development--gender stability
somewhat later than age 3, gender is perceived as stable over time; boys invariably become men and girls grow up to be women
kohlberg's cognitive-development view of sex-role development--gender consistency
the gender concept is complete when the child realizes that one's sex is also stable across situations; 5-7 year olds who have reached this stage are no longer fooled by appearances; they know, for example, that one's gender cannot be altered by cross-dressing or taking up cross-sex actitivites
martin and halverson's gender schema theory and its notions of in-group/out-group schema
one's general knowledge of the mannerisms, roles, activities, and behaviros that characterize males and females
martin and halverson's gender schema theory and its notions of own-sex schema
detailed knowledge or plans of action that enable a person to perform gender-consistent activities and enact his or her gender role
androgynous individual
a gender-role orientation in which the individual has incorporated a large nunber of both masculine and feminine attributes into his or her persoanlity
evidence that androgyny can be a desireable development goal
androgynous men and women behave more flixibly than more traditionally gender-typed individuals;they can display the masculine instrumental trait of independence by resisting social pressure, yet they are as likely to display the feminine expressive quality of nurturance by interacting positively with a baby; more highly adaptable, higher self sesteem and perceived as more likable and better adjusted
complications or negative consequences must adrogynous child confront?
children who strive too hard and express too many of the traits considered more appropriate for members of the other sex are at risk of being rejected by peers and experiencing low self-esteem
what are some ways that parents and teachers can encourage conscious thinking about gender?
1) parents need to teach their young children about genital anatomy as a part of a larger lesson that one's biological sex is unimportant outside the domain of reproduction; 2) parents need to delay children's exposure to gender sterotypes by encouraging cross-sex and same-sex play and by dividing household chores more equitably
describe those practices, attitudes, and other factors found to be associated with aggressiveness
any form of behavior designed to harm or injure a living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment
hostile aggression
aggressive acts for which the perpetrator's major goal is to harm or injure a victim
instrumental aggression
aggressive acts for which the perpetrator's major goal is to gain access to objects, space, or privileges
general child rearing factors that are thought to contribute to altruism in children
parents frequently disciplined harmdoing with affective explanations that may foster sympathy by helping children to see the relation between their own acts and the distress they have caused
oedipal morality
freud's theory that moral development occurs during the phallic period (ages 3-6) when children internalize the moral standards of the same-sex parent as they resolve their Oedipus or Electra conflicts
why does freud's oedipal morality notion no longer have credibility?
within a warm, mutually responsive relationship, toddlers are likely to display committed compliance; alloof or insensitive parents who have shared few mutually enjoyable activities with a toddler are likely to promote situational compliance
mutually responsive orientation/relationship
parent-child relationship characterized by mutual responsiveness to each other's needs and goals and shared positive affect
committed compliance
compliance based on the child's eagerness to cooperate with a responsive parent who has been willing to cooperate with him or her
situational compliance
compliance based primarily on a parent's power to control the child's conduct
preconventional morality
kohlberg's term for the first two stages of moral reasoning, in which moral judgements are based on the tangible punitive consequences or rewarding consequences of an act for the actor rather than on the relationship of that act to society's rules and customs
conventional morality
kohlberg's term for the third and fourth stages of moral reasoning, in which moral judgments are based on a desire to gain approval or to uphold laws that maintain social order
strenghts of kohlberg's theory of moral development
kohlberg's levels and stages of moral reasoning are universal structures that are age related, just as we would expect them to be if they formed a developmental sequence
weaknesses of kohlberg's theory of moral development
most criticisms have centered on the possibilities that it is biased against certain groups of people, that it underestimates the moral sophistication of young children, and that it says much about moral reasoning but little about moral affect and moral behavior
hoffman's three types of parental discipline: love-withdrawal
a form of discipline in which an adult witholds attention, affection, or approval in order to modify or control a child's behavior; effects on child's moral maturity--not particularly effective at promoting moral maturity
hoffman's three types of parental discipline: power-assertion
a form of discipline in which an adult relies on his or her superior power to modify or control a child's behavior; effect on child's moral maturity--not particularly effective at promoting moral maturity
hoffman's three types of parental discipline: induction
a nonpunitive form of discipline in which an adult explains why a child's behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing its effects on others; effects on child's moral maturity--seemed to foster the development of all three aspects of morality (moral emotions, moral reasoning, and moral behavior)
why is inductive discipline so effective in fostering moral maturity?
1)it provides children with cognitive standards to evaluate their conduct
2) this form of discipline helps children to sympathize with others and allows parents to talk about such moral affects as pride, guilt, and shame that are not easily discussed with a child
3)parents who use inductive discipline are likely to explain to the child what he or she SHOULD have done when tempted to violate a prohibition and what he or she can NOW do to make up for a transgression
evidence indicating that acceptance/responsiveness is a significant dimension in parental child-rearing practices that has a marked impact on a number of developmental outcomes
positive outcomes as secure emotional attachments, a prosocial orientation and good peer relations, high self-esteem, a strong sense of morality, and many other virtues
a dimension of parenting that describes the amount of responsiveness and affection that a parent displays toward a child
discuss the likely positive effects of having brothers or sisters
1) provide emotional support
2) older siblings provide caretaking services for younger ones
#) older siblings often teach new skills to younger brothers and sisters
4) frequency and intensity of sibling interactions imply that these contacts may foster the growth of many social-cognitive competencies
what parent characteristics have been found to be associated with increased risk of child abuse?
alcohol or drug problem, maltreated as a child, battered women, young, poeverty stricken, poorly educated, emotionally insecure
what child characteristics have been found to be associated with increased risk of child abuse?
emotionally unresponsive, hyperactive, irritable, impulsive, sickly
three potentially negative effects of television on developing children
instigates aggression due to televised violence, tendencey to view the world as a violent place, desensitized, social sterotypes, children ask for products that they see in commercials
three potentially positive effects of television on developing children
many programs are designed to illustrate the benefits of such prosocial activities as cooperation, sharing, and comforting distressed companions, cognitive skills such as counting numbers and letters etc,
parallel play
largely noninteractive play in which players are in close proximity but do not often attempt to influence each other
associative play
form of social discourse in which children pursue their own interests but will swap toys or comment on each other's activites
cooperative play
true social play in which children cooperate or assume reciprocal roles while pursuing shared goals
rejected-aggressive children
a subgroup of rejected children who display high levels of hostility and aggression in their interactions with peers
rejected-withdrawn children
a subgroup of rejected children who are often passive, socially unskilled, and insensitive to peer-group expectations
conflicts stemming from differences in the values and practices advocated by parents and those favored by peers

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