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Cell Specialization & Body Organization

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What are the 2 different methods of differentiation?
- Different genetic material between daughter cells
- Cytoplasmic/extracellular elements that influence expression are distributed unequally
What are the only cells without a complete genome?
Gonads
What is meant by the lineage model of cell differentiation?
- Cell and progeny have intrinsic info determining phenotype
- Fate is FIXED from beginning
- Mitotic division permits expression of new parts of genome
What is meant by the environmental model of cell differentiation?
- External signals cause cells to differentiate as they do
- Fate is NOT FIXED
What is the only time at which individual chromosomes are visible?
- During cell division
(otherwise packed as chromatin during interphase)
In which phase of the cell cycle are organelles made?
G1 Interphase
In which phase of the cell cycle do chromosomes duplicate?
S Interphase
In which phase of the cell cycle is energy stored?
G2 interphase
What stages comprise CELL DIVISION?
Mitosis, cytokinesis
What occurs during prophase & metaphase?
Chromosomes coil, line up at middle of cell
What occurs during anaphase & telophase?
Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite sides.
What occurs during cytokinesis?
Cell divides to genetically identical cells.
What is characteristic about chromosomes during Meiosis I?
- Homologous chromosomes are paired
- Genetic info is CROSSED OVER
What is Meiosis II?
- Essentially the same as mitosis
- 4 haploid daughter cells
Which phase contributes most to genetic variations?
- MEIOSIS I:
- Large number of arrangements of chromosomes
- Crossover

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