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Block 2 PATH Exam -- Vascular Disease Lecture


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Affects large and medium sized arteries
Results in formation of atheromas
Causes of DVT
Injury (trauma)
Hypercoagulant state
Intimal cell masses
Accumulation of smooth muscle cells in the normal intima
Found in infants at sites where atherosclerosis occurs in adults
Large Elastic Arteries
Tunica intima -- endothelium and connective tissue
Tunica media -- smooth muscle cells, intervening elastic fibers
Adventitia -- connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
Large Muscular Arteries
Layers same as elastic, BUT, the tunica media has an internal elastic lamina, smooth muscle, and an external elastic lamina
Monckeberg Medial Sclerosis
Affects large and medium sized muscular arteries
Degenerative calcification of the media

Usually in upper and lower extremities of old people
Syphilitic Aneurysm
Occur in the ascending aorta
Shape is fusiform
Inflammation surrounding the vasa vasorum causes medial scarring
Affects smaller arteries and arterioles
Results in hyaline thickening of vessel wall
Atherosclerotic Aneurysm
Most common in the distal aorta and common iliac arteries
Shape is fusiform or saccular
More common in hypertensives
Dissecting Aneurysm
Most common in the proximal aorta
Dissection is between the inner two thirds and outer third
Most common complication is hemorrhage
Capillary --> birthmark
Cavernous --> port wine stains
Rare, malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells
Most commonly in skin and soft tissue
Of liver, associated with arsenic and vinyl chloride
Kaposi Sarcoma
Malignant endothelial tumor
Seen frequently in AIDS patients
Commonly occurs on skin, mucosal membranes, GI tract, and lungs
Evidence implicates Human Herpesvirus 8

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