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the programming environment of an expert system is called the
AI shell
Access to the web is required to use:
Membership functions are used in:
fuzzy logic
Functioning as a knowledge map is one capability of a properly designed:
A(n) _______ is trained by feeding it a set of data for which inputs produce a known set of outputs or conclusions.
neural network
Neural networkd may not perform well:
if their training covers too much data
The elimination of unsatisfying jobs held by people is a good use of:
artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence tools work best with:
complex, repetitive information-based activities
The model of human understanding that is used by an expert system is called a/the:
knowledge base
Within the organization, knowing how to efficiently and effectively perform its business processes, create new products and services, and generate profit, are all:
knowledge assets
Document imaging systems reduce problems stemming from:
paperwork flow
Allowing users to extract and analyze useful information previously buried in large groupings is a feature of:
data-driven DSS
Manay managers use the new capabilities in DSS and ESS to:
obtain the same information as before
In a GDSS electronic meeting:
each attendee has his or her own workstation
The most common models in a DSS software system are:
libraries of statistical models
The first question to ask in any evaluation of a DSS is:
What kind of prolem do you expect this system to solve?
The data in the DSS database:
are generally copies of production databases
The model for analyzing performance that supplements traditional financial measures with measurements from additional business perspectives is called:
the balanced scorecard
Applications and technologies that work with data from many different sources to help users make better decisions are referred to as:
business intelligence
The results of "what if" questions asked repeatedly to determine the impact of changes in one or more factors on the outcomes are called:
sensitivity analysis
The five types of information that data mining can yield are:
associations, sequences, classifications, clusters, and forecasts
One of the most powerful business drivers to encourage the development of global systems and global value chains is:
information technology itself
Global communication and transportation technologies, a global knowledge base, and the development of a global cul[ture are:
general cultural factors driving global business
Functions critical to the organization are supported by:
core systems
Typically, systems development and operations occur totally at the domestic home base in companies using:
centralized systems
The feasibility study is included in:
the systems analysis
The process of contracting various operations to external vendors is called:
The systems developing team and the end users develop the:
test plan
The system is not in production until:
conversion is complete
Enterprise analysis and critical success factors are the principal methodologies for:
establishing the essential information requirements of the organization
Prototyping is more iterative than the:
conventional cycle
Object oriented development is ______ than traditional structured development
more iterative
Better systems analysis and design practices will reduce:
The scoring model helps to:
bring about agreement concerning the ranking of the various criteria
The process of discovering and eliminating the errors and defects in program code is called:
The duplication of all the processes and transactions of the server on a backup server to prevent any interupption in service if the primary server fail[s is called:
Traditional structured methodologies are:
knowledge assets
organizational knowledge regarding how to efficiently and effectively perform business processes and create new products and services that enable the business to create value
tactic knowledge
expertise and experience of organizational members that has not been formally documented
knowledge workers
people, such as engineers, scientists, or architects, who designed products or services to create knowledge for the organization
office systems
computer systems such as word processing, voicemail, and imaging, which are better designed to increase the productivity of informations workers in the office
computer aided design (CAD)
information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software
virtual reality systems
interactive graphics software and hardware that create computer-generated simulations that provide sensations that emulate real world activities
Group collaboration software that is customized for teamwork
virtual reality modeling language (VRML)
a set specifications for interactive three-dimensional modeling on the world wide Web
knowledge map
for identifying and locating the organization's knowledge resources
enterprise information portal
application that enables companies to provide users with a single gateway to internal and external sources of information
arktificial intelligence
the effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise in decision making
expert system
knowledge intensive computer program that captures the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge
knowledge base
model of human knowledge that is used by expert systems
AI shell
- the programming environment of an expert system
inference engine
the strategy used to search through their rule based in the expert system can be forward or backward chaining[
forward chaining
a strategy for searching the rule base and an expert system that begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule based to arrive at the conclusion
backward chaining
a strategy for searching the rule base in the expert system that acts like a problem solver by beginning with the hypothesis and seeking out more information until the hypothesis is either prove or disprove
knowledge engineer
a specialist who elicits information and expertise from other professionals and translates it into a set of rules for the expert system
neural network
hardware or software that attempts to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain
fuzzy logic
artificial intelligence that tolerates imprecision by using non-specific terms called membership functions to solve problems
genetic algorithms
-solving methods that promote the evolution of solutions to specified problems using the model of living organisms adapting to the retirement
hybrid artificial intelligence systems
integration of multiple artificial intelligence technologies into a single application to take advantage of the best features of these technologies
jukebox device
some kind of device used with document imaging systems
document imaging systems
systems that converts paper documents and images into digital form so that they can be stored and access by the computer
natural language
programming language that is very close to human language
autonomous execution systems
system that runs continuously and monitors information as it arrives from multiple distributed locations and then executes specific tasks in response to what they find
systems that would be able to learn natural languages and accomplish coordinated physical tasks
business intelligence
applications and technologies that focus on a gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data from many different sources to help users make better business decisions
model driven DSS
primarily standalone system that uses some type of model to perform "what if" and other kinds of analysis
data driven DSS
a system that supports decision making by allowing users to extract and analyze useful information that was previously buried in large databases
DSS database
a collection of current or historical data from a number of applications or groups.
DSS software system
collection of software tools that are used for data analysis, such OLAP tools, data mining tools, or collection of mathematical and analytical models
sensitivity analysis
models that ask " what if " questions repeatedly to determine the impact of changes in one or more factors on the outcomes
geographic information system (GIS)
system was software that can analyze and displayed data using digitized maps to enhance planning in decision making
customer decision support system
system to support the decision making process of an existing or potential customer
group decision support system (GDSS)
in interactive computer-based system to facilitate the solution to unstructured problems by set of decision makers working together as a group
drill down
the ability to move from summary data to lower and lower levels of detail
activity based costing
model for identifying all the company activities that cause cost to occurwhile producing a specific product or service so that managers can see which products or services are profitable or losing money and make changes to maximize firm's profitability
decision support systems
information systems at the organization's ministerial level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support some unstructured and unstructured decision making
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
- capability for manipulating and analyze in large volumes of data from multiple perspectives
enterprise analysis
an analysis of organizational wide information requirements that examines the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements; helps identify the key into GIS and attributes in the organization's data
setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against the standards
systems analysis
the analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with the information system
feasibility study
as part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints
systems design
details how system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis
the process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code
exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions
unit testing
process of testing each program separately in the system
acceptance testing
provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting
test plan
prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all the preparations for the series of test to be perform on the system
parallel strategy
a safe and conservative conversion approach were both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is sure that the new one functions correctly
descriptions of how an information system works for both a technical or an enduser standpoint
the stage after the new system is installed in the conversion is complete; during this time the system is read by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals
the preliminary Working version of an information system for demonstration and evaluation purposes
end user interface
the part of an information system through which the in the end user interacts with the system, such as on line screens and commands
request for proposal (RFP)
a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services do determine how well the vendor's product can meet organization's as of requirements
the modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity
the practice of contract in computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications Development to external vendors
rapid application development (RAD)
process for developing systems in a very short time. By using prototyping, fourth generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialist
joint application design (JAD)
process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions
simple object access protocol (SOAP)
set of rules that allows Web Services applications to pass data and instructions to one another
web services description language (WSDL)
common framework for describing the tasks performed by web service so that it can be used by other applications
process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system
capital budgeting
the process of analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures
tangible benefits
benefits that can be qualified and assign a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increase cash flow
intangible benefits
benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhance decision making
Net present value
the amount of money and investment is worth, taking into account its cost, earnings, and the time value of money
scoring model
a quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objects
all organizational activities working toward the adoption, management, and routinization of an innovation
the interaction of people and machines and the work marmot, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end user interface of the information systems
a person who gains unauthorized access to a computer network for profit, criminal mischief, or personal pleasure
computer viruses
rogue software programs that are difficult to detect, which spread rapidly through computer systems, destroying data or disrupting processing and memory systems
anivirus software
software designed to detect, and often eliminate, computer viruses from information system
program code defects or errors
application controls
specific controls unique to each computerized application
data security controls
controls to ensure that data files on either disk or tape are not subject to unauthorized access, a change, or destruction
input controls
the procedure to check data for accuracy and completeness when they enter the system
output controls
measures that ensure that the results of computer processing are accurate complete and properly distributed
disaster recovery plan
plan for running the business in the event of a computer outage. Includes organizational procedures as well back the processing, storage and data base capabilities
duplicate all the processes in transactions of server on the back of server to prevent any interruption in service if the primary server fails
lead to computers together so that the second computer can act as a back up to the primary computer or speed up processing
the coding and scrambling of messages to prevent their being read or assessed without authorization
digital signature
a digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted message to uniquely identify its contents and the sender
refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each that building on a previous one
structured analysis
a method for defining system and poets, processes, and outputs and for partitioning systems into subsystems or models that show a logical graphic model of the information flow
structured design
software design discipline encompassing a set of design rules and techniques for designing systems from the top down and hierarchical fashion
computer aided software engineering (CASE)
automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amount of repetitive work the developer needs to
resource allocation
the determination of how cost, time, and personnel are assigned to different phases of the systems development project
data flow diagram
primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a systems component processes in the flow of data between them
walk through
a review of a specification for design document by a small group of people carefully selected based on the skills needed for the particular objectives been tested
the process of discovering and eliminating the errors and defects in the program code
business driver
a force in the environment to which businesses must respond and that influence the direction of business
global culture
the development of common expectations, shared artifacts, and social norms among different cultures and people
domestic exporter
a strategy characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin
a former product is created, design, finance, initially produced in the home country, but for products to the reasons must rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources
court systems
- systems that support functions that are absolutely critical to the organization
the extent to which ones authority is accepted on grounds of contents, vision, or other qualities
collection of related tables
common field
this is used to connect records into separate tables so that it appears in both tables
primary key
a field, where a collection of fields, whose values uniquely identify each record in a table
foreign key
when you include the primary key from one table as a field in a second table to form a relationship between the two tables it is called a foreign key
composite key
a multiple field primary key
one to many relationship
exists between two tables when each row in the first table matches many rows in the second table and each row in the second table matches at most one row in the first table
data redundancy
when you store the same data and more than one place
input mask
a pre defined format used to enter and displayed data in a field
secondary sort field
a second field that determines the order of records that are already sorted by the primary source field
primary sort field
the first sort field specified
set of restrictions placed on the records in an open data sheet or form to temporarily isolate a subset of records
contains a combination database Fields, constants, and operators

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