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bio chapter 13 2


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early earth
1. Earth is about 4.5 billion years old
2. Oldest fossil is 3.5 billion years old- from ancient seas
3. First Cells
a. bacteria
b. Prokaryotes
4. Cyanotaacteria
a. one of the earliest bacteria
b. photosynthesis
c. important- released Oz into the Earth’s atmosphere
. 2 kingdoms of bacteria
A. Eubacteria
a. causes diseases and decay
B. Archaebacteria
a. different structures
b. different ways of making proteins from DNA
c. appear to be the ancestors of all eukaryote cells
C. Many books refer these 2 kingdoms together as one kingdom
a. Monera’s
1. Protists
a. First eukaryote
b. First nucleus
c. NA inside it
B. 6 kingdoms of living organisms
a. Archaebacteria
b. Eubacteria
c. Protsta
d. Fungi
e. plantae
f. animals
Multicellular organisms
1. Great step in evolution
2. Oldest milt cellular fossil
a. 630 million years ago- Australia
3. Precambrian Era
a. 5 million years ago to 600 million years ago
b. “strip calandia
4. Cambrian Period
a. 600- 500 million years ago
b. time of great evolutionary experimentation
\ c. most of today’s living organisms organized during this time span
d. Diversity of life
1. First mass extinction
a. 440 million years ago
b. many life forms died
c. end of ordination period
2. 2nd mass extinction
a. 360 million years ago
3. 3rd mass extinction
a. end of Permian Period
b. Greatest one
c. 96% of all species died
4. Forth mass extinction
1. 215 million years ago
2. Less Devastating
5. Fifth mass extinction
65 million years ago
1. 2/3 of all land’s species died including the dinosaurs
end of extinction part
F. Reasons- unclear
1. Massive climate or global changes
G. Another one may be happening now- Why????
11. No life on land for a long time due to the deadly rays of sun
A. Slowly oxygen was being added to the atmosphere
B. ozone or O3 layer was slowly created
C. Acts as a shield to block sun rays
D. Land became safe
. Plants and Fungi invade land
A. 430 million years ago
B. A partnership between plants and fungi
C. Mycorrhixae (mulatalism)
D. Symbiosis- needs each other to live
E. Plants make food/ Fungi anchor and absorb water and minerals
13. Arthropods- land
A. 1rst animals on land
B. Scorpions, crabs, lobster
C. Around 370 million years ago
D. Insects evolved- very important/ 1rst animals to have wings
E. Partnership between insects and flowering plants have led to both these successes
14. Vertebrates invading land
A. Vertebrates are animals with back bones
B. Vert. fish present in oceans since 550 million years ago
C. 1ST land vert- 350 million years ago
D. 1rst ones were amphibians
1. Frogs, toads, salamanders
15. Fish= 1rst vertebrates
A. Jawless type fish- sucker mouth
1. 450 million years ago
B. Jaws evolved
1. 420 million years ago
2. More efficient hunter
C. Developed into 2 groups of fish
1. Sharks- skeleton made of cartilage, large fins, swim well
2. Bony fish- skeleton made of bone, swim well, swim bladder
16. Amphibians invade land
A. 350 million year ago
B. Still present today- outlasted dinosaurs
C. developed lungs, limbs, improved heart, and circulatory system
D. Not perfect land organism because they had to return to water to reproduce and live in moist areas
17. Reptiles move to land
A. Reptiles are the improved amphibians
B. Watertight skin, watertight eggs, lay eggs on land
C. Around 300 million years ago
D. Reptiles became the dominate land animal
E. Remain extinction killed most, but not all the reptiles
18. Continental Drift
A. Involves the movement of Earth’s giant land masses makes present day continental
19. Study the evolutionary Tree on Page 287 of text
20. Birds and mammals dominate the Earth
A. Other major mass extinction killed most land animals bigger then a dog
B. Small reptiles, mammals and birds survived
C. Due to mass extinction there were many empty notches to be filled by mammals and birds

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