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Bio Lab Chapter 12


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Photosynthesis equation
Photosynthesis is dependent on what?
light and chlorophyll
Photosynthesis converts ___ to ___
-carbon dioxide and water
-sugar, water, and oxygen
After photosynthesis, oxygen is ___ and sugar is ___
-released to the environment
-stored as starch, a polysaccharide
In the photosynthesis equation, water molecules from the left side ___
split to release electrons during the photochemical reactions
In the photosynthesis equation, product water molecules ___
are assembled from hydrogen and oxygen released during the photochemical and biochemical reactions
names for biochemical reactions
-Calvin Cycle
-dark reactions
characteristics of photochemical reactions
-fast(practically instantaneous)
-splits water to release oxygen, electrons, and protons
characteristics of biochemical reactions
-slower than photochemical, but still extremely fast
-converts(fixes) carbon dioxide to sugar
a substance that absorbs light
the primary photosynthetic pigments that absorb light for photosynthesis
chlorophylls a and b
pigments that absorb light and transfer energy to chlorophyll a
accessory pigments (carotenes, xanthophylls)
how does paper chromatography work?
pg. 126
a technique for separating dissolved compounds such as chlorophyll, carotene, and xanthophyll
paper chromatography
what are the colors of the pigments on chromatography paper?
chlorophyll a:blue-green
chlorophyll b:yellow-grean
the pigments that move higher are ___ to the chromatography solvent in terms of ___
-more similar
-molecular size, polarity, and solubility
pigments absorbed strongly move ___
pigments absorbed weakly move ___
what is chromatography paper made of?
Definition of Rf value
ratio of distance moved by pigment to distance from point of origin to solvent front
order pigments on solubility in chromatography solvent (least->greatest). Which had the highest Rf value? Why?
-Chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a, xanthophyll, carotene
-carotene had highest Rf value because it moved the easiest/farthest
If yellow xanthophylls were in the extract, why did the extract appear green?
the amount of chlorophyll outnumbered the amount of xanthophyll
Is it possible to have an Rf value greater than 1?
No, movement will always be less than the solvent front.
what is an instrument that separates white light into its component colors?
light not visible in an extract has been ___
colors on a spectroscope range from ___
red to VIOLET
In ___, the photon absorbed from the illuminating radiation excites an electron that is initially in the ground state to a higher state. This excited electron then falls to a lower level, but not immediately back to the ground state, emitting a longer-wa
pH indicator
phenol red (phenol-sulfonphthalein)
phenol red turns ___ in an acidic solution and ___ in a neutral to basic solution
When we added CO(2) to the phenol red, it turned ___. Adding a photosynthesizing plant caused it to turn back to its original color(___). Why did this happen?
-The plant used CO(2) for photosynthesis which made the solution less acidic.
uptake of carbon dioxide equation
water+carbon dioxide(breath)<-->Carbonic acid<-->hydrogen ion+bicarbonate ion
what was the name of the plant we used to test the uptake of carbon dioxide?
the biochemical reactions of photosynthesis occur on ___
photosynthetic membranes
in bacteria, biochemical reaction occur on the ___
cell membrane
in plants and algae, biochemical reactions take place on the ___ which are located in the ___
thylakoids are stacked to form columns called ___
grana are held in place by ___
this semiliquid bathes the interior of the chloroplast and contains the enzymes that catalyze the biochemical reactions
the production of starch requires ___
light and chlorophyll
what causes different colors on leaves?
different pigments/combinations of pigments
why do leaves change colors in the fall?
there is not enough light or water to use chlorophyll for photochemical reactions. the chlorphyll breaks down and what is left are orange and yellow xanthophylls and carotenes.

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