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Emotional and Personality Development Ch9


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Erickson Theory
Conflict #3:
Initiative vs. Guilt
Early childhood
Conscience developes
Able to hear inner self
i. self-observation
ii. self-guidance
iii. self-punishment
Freedom and opportunity supports INITIATIVE
GUILT develops if child's enthusiasm and curiosity is squelched
Piaget's view on Moral Reasoning Development
1st of 2 stages
Heteronomous: 4-7 yrs old
child doesn't look at the intention..things are B&W.
Rule broken means punishment.
Rules have unchangeable properties, thus people can't change them
Piaget's view on Moral Reasoning Development
2nd of 2 stages
Autonomous: 10 yrs old
Child realizes rules are made by people and can be changed.
Before judging an action need to look at intention
What is moral development?
involves thought, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions.
It involves INTERpersonal and INTRApersonal components.
Moral behavior and self control
Self control is an important aspect of understanding children's moral behavior. to achieve self control, they must learn to be patient and delay gratification

What are the parenting styles

What will children by like under
AUTHORATIVE parenting style
Cheerful, self-controlled, self-reliant, achievement oriented, cooperate w/adults, cope well under stress
What will children by like under
AUTHORITARIAN parenting style
anxious about themselves and w/others, FAIL TO INITIATE activites, weak communication skills
What will children by like under
INDULGENCE parenting style
may be impulsive, aggressive,domineering,non-compliant, never learn self-control, rarely learn to respect others, have difficulty controlling their behaviors, have difficulties w/peer relationships
What will children by like under
NEGLECT parenting style
Often are immature, may be alienated from the family, socially incompetent, poor self-esteem, poor self-control, don't handle independence well
what are their functions
- one of the most important func is to provide a source of info and comparison outside family.
Thus, GOOD peer relations can be necessary for normal social development
It's engaged for its own sake
However, it also
-increases affiliation w/peers
-advances cognitive development
-increases exploration
-provides safe haven to explore and learn
-increase conversation and interaction
-practice roles they will probably assume later in life
-Allows child to work off frustrations
-Thru play, child can be analyzed for conflicts and coping issues
-child feels less threatened in play, thus can express true feelings
PARTEN's Classifications of play
play in childs SOCIAL world:
1-Unoccupied play
2-Solitary play
3- Onlooker play
4- Parallel play
5- Associative play
6- Cooperative play
PARTEN's Classifications of play
Define: Unoccupied
Stands alone in 1 spot, looks around the room, or performs random movements that don't seem to hav a goal.
PARTEN's Classifications of play
Define: Solitary
child plays alone and independently of others
Mildred PARTEN's (1932) Classifications of play
Define: Onlooker
when the child watches other children play. May ask questions/talk to kids, but won't participate.
PARTEN's Classifications of play
Define: Parallel
Child plays separately from others, but with toys like those the others are using or in a manner that mimics their play
PARTEN's Classifications of play
Define: Associative
involves social interaction with little or no organization (no rules)
Children are more interested in each other than the activity: borrowing/lending toys, follow each other in lines, etc
PARTEN's Classifications of play
Define: Cooperative
Social interaction in a group with a sense of group identity and organized activity (phototype for play in middle childhood).
Bergen's types of play
Contemporary look at play
5 types
Emphasized on cognitive and social aspects
1-sensorimotor and practice
2-Pretense/Symbolic play
3-Social Play
4-Constructive Play
Bergen's types of play
Semimotor and Practice Play
Semimotor: (infant stage: 9-24 mos.) pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
Practice play used to master new new skills/behaviors. Semimotor and Practice go hand-in-hand. But Practice play will stay throught life, where semimotor confined to infancy.
Bergen's types of play
Pretense/symbolic play
from 9-30 mos. child transforms objects to symbols. Imagination peaks at 4-5 yrs and then gradually declines
Bergen's types of play
Social Play
interact w/peers, rough 'n tough play...increasing dramatically during preschool years
Bergen's types of play
Constructive Play
Most common type of play in preschool years.
Combines semimotor, repetitive activities w/sympolic representation of ideas. They engage in self-regulated creatoin or construction of a product or problem solution.
Constructive play increases as symbolic play increases adn sensorimotor play decreased in preschool yrs.
Bergen's types of play
Highest Level
include rules and are engaged-in for pleasure. Competition w/one another. The meaningfulness of challenge emerges in elementary school.

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