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Chemistry Chapter 5 12.4.05


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What information did Mendeleev place on his cards?
Name of each known element along with the atomic mass and the list of its observed physical and chemical properties
How did Mendeleev arrange the cards
According to various properties and looked for trends or patterns
When did Mendeleev publish his first periodic table
What did Mendeleev say about the empty spaces in his table
Predicted that the existence and properties of elements would fill three of the spaces
What previously undiscovered pattern did Moseley discover
Elements in the periodic table fit into the patterns better when they were arranged in increasing order according to nuclear charge, or the number of protons in the nucleus
What did Morseley's work on the undiscovered pattern lead him to
Modern definition of atomic number
Recognition that atomic number is the basis for the organization of the periodic table
Periodic Law
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Periodic Table
An arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
Are the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58(Cesium) to 71(Lithuim)
Who and when was argon discovered
John William Strutt
Sir William Ramsay
Are the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 (Thorium) to 103 (Lawrencium)
How is the length of each period determined
By the number of electrons that can occupy the sublevels being filled in that period
Is hydrogen a member of the alkai metals (Why,Why not?)
No, it is a unique element with properties that do not resemble those of any group
Is helium a member of the noble gases (Why, Why not?)
Yes, helium possesses special chemical stability, exhibiting the unreactive nature of Group 18
What are the characteristics of transition elements
Good conductors of electricity, high-luster, less reactive than alkai and alkaline-earth metals
Atomic Radius
One-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
What is the trend in atomic radius when you move from left to right
It has a greater pull from the nucleus causing electrons to move closer to the nucleus
What is the trend in atomic radius when you move from top to bottom
Radii of elements increases. Ths occurs because they have more levels of electron
An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a postive or negative charge
Any process that results in formation of ions
Ionization Energy
Energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
What is the trend in ionization energy when moving from left to right (Why?)
Increase in elements.

This is caused by increasing nuclear charge, a higher charge more strongly attracts electrons in the same energy level
What is the trend in ionization energy when moving from top to bottom (Why?)
Ionization energy decreasing gets smaller

This is caused because electrons removed from atoms of each succeeding element in a group are in higher energy levels farther from the nucleaus
Second Ionization Energy
Third Ionization Energy
What is the trend in ionization energy as you remove the first electron, second etc. (Why?)
They are always higher
This occurs because each electron removed increasingly strengthens the nuclear charge
When does the large jump in ionization occur
When ion assumes noble gas configuration
Electron Affinity
Enegry change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
When is energy listed on the right side of an equation
(Positive, Negative?)
When is energy listed on the left side of an equation
(Positve, Negative?)
Positive ion
Negative ion

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